Calibración del resultado de una prueba escrita en estudiantes de ciencias de secundaria: el efecto del sexo

Palabras clave: educación secundaria, metacognición, calibración, sexo, secondary education, metacognition, calibration, sex

Resumen

Durante las últimas décadas se han encontrado importantes diferencias por sexo en la enseñanza y el aprendizaje de las disciplinas científicas. Por otro lado, la autoevaluación por parte de los estudiantes supone un aspecto fundamental en el ciclo de autorregulación del aprendizaje y, por tanto, en su rendimiento. El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar la metacognición de los estudiantes de secundaria y, en particular, el efecto del sexo en las mismas. Para ello se ha medido la calibración de 507 estudiantes. Nuestros análisis muestran que las chicas calibran mejor su nota que los chicos a pesar de que estos últimos muestran más seguridad en sus juicios. Se ha encontrado una tendencia de ambos sexos a la sobreestimación de sus calificaciones en una prueba escrita. Por otro lado, los estudiantes con alto rendimiento son más precisos y tienden a sobrevalorar sus actuaciones. En cambio, los de rendimiento bajo son más imprecisos y tienden a subestimar sus calificaciones en la prueba. Aunque este efecto se observa en ambos sexos, su tamaño es superior en el caso de las chicas. En vista de los resultados, los estudiantes de rendimiento alto utilizan con más eficacia la retroalimentación que generan durante la prueba que los de rendimiento bajo. Las diferencias por sexo podrían tener su origen en las diferentes actitudes y motivaciones de los chicos y las chicas hacia la ciencia.

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Publicado
01-07-2020
Cómo citar
Ardura, D., & Galán, A. (2020). Calibración del resultado de una prueba escrita en estudiantes de ciencias de secundaria: el efecto del sexo. Revista De Investigación Educativa, 38(2), 329-344. https://doi.org/10.6018/rie.384031
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