Los roles del bienestar espiritual y la tolerancia a la incertidumbre en la predicción de la felicidad en los ancianos


  • Siamak Khodarahimi Eghlid Branch, Islamic Azad University
  • Ezatolah Ghadampour Lorestan University
  • Amir Karami Lorestan University
DOI: https://doi.org/10.6018/analesps.446871
Palabras clave: Bienestar espiritual, Tolerancia a la incertidumbre, Felicidad, Sexo, Personas mayores


Antecedentes: De acuerdo con las conceptualizaciones del bienestar espiritual, la intolerancia a la ambigüedad y la felicidad, este estudio se propuso investigar las influencias del bienestar espiritual y la tolerancia a la incertidumbre sobre la felicidad con respecto a los roles moderadores del sexo en los ancianos. Método: Participaron 120 ancianos de la ciudad de Shiraz, provincia de Fars, Irán. Para la recopilación de datos se utilizaron un cuestionario demográfico, el Inventario de Bienestar Espiritual (SWBI), la Escala II de Tolerancia a la Ambigüedad de Tipos de Estímulos Múltiples (MSTAT-II) y el Cuestionario de Felicidad de Oxford (OHI). Resultados: Los resultados mostraron que la espiritualidad, el bienestar y la intolerancia a la incertidumbre explican el 60% de la variación de la felicidad en los ancianos. Pero los resultados rechazaron el papel del sexo en la predicción de la felicidad en el presente estudio. Conclusión: Este estudio demuestra los roles predictivos del bienestar espiritual y la tolerancia a la ambigüedad sobre la felicidad en el campo de la gerontología.


Los datos de descargas todavía no están disponibles.

Biografía del autor/a

Siamak Khodarahimi, Eghlid Branch, Islamic Azad University

Eghlid Branch, Islamic Azad University

Amir Karami , Lorestan University

Lorestan University


Adib-Hajbaghery, M., & Faraji, M. (2015). Comparison of happiness and spiritual well-being among the community dwelling elderly and those who lived in sanitariums. International journal of community-based nursing and midwifery, 3(3), 216-26.

Anderson, E.C., Carleton, R. N., Diefenbach, M., & Han, P. K. J. (2019). The relationship between uncertainty and affect. Frontiers in Psychology, 10 (2504), 1-17. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2019.02504.

Argyle, M. (1987). The psychology of happiness. New York, NY, US: Methuen.

Argyle, M., & Hills, P. (2000). Religious experiences and their relations with happiness and personality. The International Journal for the Psychology of Religion, 10(3), 157–172.

Basevitz, P., Pushkar, D., Chaikelson, J., Conway, M., & Dalton, C. (2008). Age-related differences in worry and related processes. International journal of aging & human development, 66, 283-305. 10.2190/AG.66.4.b.

Boonroungrut, C., & Worakul, P. (2009). Spiritual well-being and happiness in the elderly at Ban Bang Khae Social Welfare Development Center., Thailand. Journal of Religious and Culture, 2, 153-166.

Brooke, V. (1987). The spiritual well-being of the elderly. Geriatric Nursing, 8(4), 194-195. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0197-4572(87)80222-7

Bryman, A., & Duncan, C. (2011). Quantitative data analysis with IBM SPSS 17, 18 and 19: A guide for social scientists. New York: Routledge.

Bucks, R. S., Garner, M., Tarrant, L., Bradley, B. P., & Mogg, K. (2008). Interpretation of emotionally ambiguous faces in older adults. Journal of Gerontology: Psychological Sciences, 63(6), P337-343.

Buhr, K., & Dugas, M.J. (2009). The role of fear of anxiety and intolerance of uncertainty in worry: An experimental manipulation. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 47, 215–223.

Dagerman, K. S., Macdonald, M. C., & Harm, M. W. (2006). Aging and the use of context in ambiguity resolution: complex changes from simple slowing. Cognitive Science, 30(2), 311-345. doi: 10.1207/s15516709cog0000_46

Dehshiri, G., Najafi, M., Sohrabi, F., & Traghikhah, S. (2012). Development and validation of spiritual wee-being inventory in students. Psychological Studies (Motaleat-e-Ravanshenakhti), 4(9), 73-98. http://psychstudies.alzahra.ac.ir/article_1759_b1b06a85df7a882ad9b426aef071de21.pdf

de Guzman, A. B., Lacao, R. A., & Larracas, C. (2015). A Structural Equation Modelling on the Factors Affecting Intolerance of Uncertainty and Worry Among a Select Group of Filipino Elderly. Educational Gerontology, 41(2), 106-119. doi: 10.1080/03601277.2014.918837

Diener, E. (2006). Guidelines for national indicators of subjective well-being and ill-being. Journal of Happiness Studies, 7, 397–404.

Diener, E. (1984). Subjective well-being. Psychological Bulletin, 95, 542–575.

Diener, E., Suh, E. M., Lucas, R. E., & Smith, H. L. (1999). Subjective well-being: Three decades of progress. Psychological Bulletin, 125, 276–302.

Delgado, C. (2005). A Discussion of the Concept of Spirituality. Nursing Science Quarterly, 18(2), 157-162. doi: 10.1177/0894318405274828

Dugas, M.J., Freeston, M.H., & Ladouceur, R. (1997). The intolerance of uncertainty scale: Psychometric properties of the English version. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 21, 593–606.

Fisher, J. W. (2000). Being human and becoming whole: Understanding spiritual health and well-being. Journal of Christian Education, 43(3), 37-52.

Fisher, J.W. (1998). Spiritual health: Its nature, and place in the school curriculum. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

Fisher, J.W., Francis, L.J., & Johnson, P. (2000). Assessing spiritual health via four domains of spiritual well-being: The SH4DI. Pastoral Psychology, 49(2), 133-145.

Hillen, M. A., Gutheil, C. M., Strout, T. D., Smets, E. M. A., & Han, P. K. J. (2017). Tolerance of uncertainty: Conceptual analysis, integrative model, and implications for healthcare. Social Science & Medicine, 180, 62-75. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2017.03.024

Jackson,D., Doyle,C., Capon, H., & Pringle, E. (2016). Spirituality, spiritual need, and spiritual care in aged care: What the literature says. Journal of Religion, Spirituality & Aging, 28(4), 281-295. doi: 10.1080/15528030.2016.1193097.

Gomez, R. & Fisher, J.W. (2003). Domains of spiritual well-being and development and validation of the Spiritual Well-Being Questionnaire. Personality and Individual Differences, 35(8),1975-1991. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0191-8869(03)00045-X.

Griffin, M. T., Lee, Y. H., Salman, A., Seo, Y., Marin, P. A., Starling, R. C., & Fitzpatrick, J. J. (2007). Spirituality and well-being among elders: differences between elders with heart failure and those without heart failure. Clinical interventions in aging, 2(4), 669–675. doi:10.2147/cia.s874.

Jafari, N., & Loghmani, A., & Puchalski, C.M. (2014). Spirituality and health care in Iran: Time to Reconsider. Journal of Religion and Health, 53(6), 918–922. 10.1007/s10943-014-9887-2.

Hori, M., & Kamo, Y. (2018). Gender differences in happiness: The effects of marriage, social roles, and social support in East Asia. Applied Research in Quality of Life, 13(4), 839–857. doi: 10.1007/s11482-017-9559-y.

Kachmaryk, K., Grabovska, S., Ostrovska, K., & Syniev, V. (2014). Tolerance for uncertainty in elderly people. Journal of Education Culture and Society, 1, 20-27. 10.15503/jecs20141-20-27.

Authors. (2014). The role of gender on positive psychology constructs in a sample of Iranian adolescents and young adults. Applied Research in Quality Life, 9(1), 45-61. doi: 10.1007/s11482-013-9212-3.

Authors. (2011). Happiness and worry in an Iranian adolescent and young adults sample. International Journal of Psychology and Counselling, 3(4),71-78.

Authors. (2011). Birth order, family size, and positive psychological constructs: What role do they play for Iranian adolescents and young adults? The Journal of Individual Psychology, 67(1), 41-56.

King, M., Speck, P., & Thomas, A. (2001). The royal free interview for spiritual and religious beliefs: Development and validation of a self-report version. Psychological Medicine, 31, 1015–1023.

Kirby, SE., Coleman, P.G., & Daley, D. (2004). Spirituality and Well-Being in Frail and Nonfrail Older Adults, The Journals of Gerontology: Series B, Volume 59, Issue 3, 1 P123–P129, https://doi.org/10.1093/geronb/59.3.P123

Koenig, H., Zaben, F., & Khalifa, D. (2012). Religion, spirituality and mental health in the West and the Middle East. Asian journal of psychiatry, 5, 180-2. 10.1016/j.ajp.2012.04.004.

Kumar, A., & Dixit, V. (2017). Altruism, happiness and health among elderly people. Indian Journal of Gerontology, 31(4),480-496.

Laubmeier, K.K., Zakowski, S.G., & Bair, J.P. (2004).The role of spirituality in the psychological adjustment to cancer: a test of the transactional model of stress and coping. International Journal of Behavioral Medicoine, 11(1), 48–55.

Lavretsky, H. (2010). Spirituality and aging. Aging Health, 6, 749-769. https://doi.org/10.2217/ahe.10.70

Luchesi, B. M., de Oliveira, N. A., de Morais, D., de Paula Pessoa, R. M., Pavarini, S. C. I., & Chagas, M. H. N. (2018). Factors associated with happiness in the elderly persons living in the community. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 74, 83-87. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.archger.2017.10.006

Mclain, David. (2009). Evidence of the properties of an ambiguity tolerance measure: The Multiple Stimulus Types Ambiguity Tolerance Scale-II (MSTAT-II) 1. Psychological reports, 105, 975-88. 10.2466/PR0.105.3.975-988.

Mosca, O., Lauriola, M., & Carleton, R. N. (2016). Intolerance of Uncertainty: A Temporary Experimental Induction Procedure. PloS one, 11(6), e0155130. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0155130

Nuevo, R., Wetherell, J. L., Montorio, I., Ruiz, M. A., & Cabrera, I. (2009). Knowledge about aging and worry in older adults: testing the mediating role of intolerance of uncertainty. Aging & mental health, 13(1), 135-41. doi:10.1080/13607860802591088

O'Connell, K. A., & Skevington, S. M. (2010). Spiritual, religious, and personal beliefs are important and distinctive to assessing quality of life in health: A comparison of theoretical models. British Journal of Health Psychology, 15(4), 729 -748. doi: 10.1348/135910709X479799

Perinotti-Molinatti, J. (2005). The significance of sirituality in the elderly. A Dissertation Presented to the Faculty of Argosy University/Sarasota, Boca Raton, Florida.

Piderman, K. M., Lapid, M. I., Stevens, S. R., Ryan, S. M., Somers, K. J., Kronberg, M. T., Clark, M.M., & Rummans, T. A. (2011). Spiritual well-being and spiritual practices in elderly depressed psychiatric inpatients. Journal of Pastoral Care & Counseling, 65(1), 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1177/154230501106500103

Rosenthal, R., Roow, R.L., Rubin, D.B. (2000). Contrasts and effect sizes in behavioral research: A correlational approach. New York: Cambridge University.

Rosmarin, D. H., Pirutinsky, S., Auerbach, R. P., Bjorgvinsson, T., Bigda-Peyton, J., Andersson, G., . . . Krumrei, E. J. (2011). Incorporating spiritual beliefs into a cognitive model of worry. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 67(7), 691-700. doi: 10.1002/jclp.20798

Scortegagna, H. d. M., Pichler, N. A., & Fáccio, L. F. (2018). The experience of spirituality among institutionalized elderly people. Revista Brasileira de Geriatria e Gerontologia, 21, 293-300.

Sproten, A., Diener, C., Fiebach, C., Schwieren, C. (2010). Aging and decision making: How aging affects decisions under uncertainty. Discussion Paper Series, 508, 1-22.

Sumngern, C., Azeredo, Z., Subgranon, R., Sungvorawongphana, N., & Matos, E. (2010). Happiness among the elderly in communities: A study in senior clubs of Chonburi Province, Thailand. Japanese Journal of Nursing Sciences, 7(1), 47-54. doi: 10.1111/j.1742-7924.2010.00139.x

Tanovic, E., Gee, D., & Joormann, J. (2018). Intolerance of uncertainty: Neural and psychophysiological correlates of the perception of uncertainty as threatening. Clinical Psychology Review, 60, 87-99. doi: 10.1016/j.cpr.2018.01.001

Tymula, F., Belmaker, L. A. R., Ruderman, L., Glimcher, P. W., and Levy, I. (2014). Like cognitive function, decision making across the life span shows profound age-related changes. PNAS, 110 (42), 17143–17148, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1309909110.

Veenhoven, Ruut. (2009). 3. How do we assess how happy we are? Tenets, implications and tenability of three theories. Happiness, economics and politics: towards a multi-disciplinary approach. In A.K. Dutt and B. Radcliff, B. (eds.) ‘Happiness, Economics and Politics: Towards a multi-disciplinary approach’, pp45-69; Edward Elger Publishers: Cheltenham UK.

Veenhoven, R. (2012). Happiness: Also Known as “Life Satisfaction” and “Subjective Well-Being”. In K. C. Land, A. C. Michalos & M. J. Sirgy (Eds.), Handbook of Social Indicators and Quality of Life Research (pp. 63-77). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Velasco-Gonzalez, L., & Rioux, L. (2014). The spiritual well-being of elderly people: a study of a French sample. Journal of Religion & Health, 53(4), 1123-1137. doi: 10.1007/s10943-013-9710-5.

Vosloo, C., Wissing, M.P., & Temane, Q.M. (2009). Gender, spirituality and psychological well-being. Journal of Psychology in Africa, 19(2), 153-159. doi: 10.1080/14330237.2009.10820274.

Weathers, E. (2018). Spirituality and Health: A Middle Eastern Perspective. Religions, 9(2), 33. https://doi.org/10.3390/rel9020033

Wilson VanVoorhis, C. R., & Morgan, B.L. (2007).Understanding power and rules of thumb for determining sample sizes. Tutorials in Quantitative Methods for Psychology, 3(2), 43-50. doi: 10.20982/tqmp.03.2.p043.

Zhaleh, K., Ghonsooly, B., & Pishghadam, R. (2018). Effects of conceptions of intelligence and ambiguity tolerance on teacher burnout: A case of Iranian EFL teachers. Journal of Research in Applied Linguistics, 9(2), 118-140.

Zimmer, Z., Jagger, C., Chiu, C. T., Ofstedal, M. B., Rojo, F., & Saito, Y. (2016). Spirituality, religiosity, aging and health in global perspective: A review. SSM Population Health, 2, 373-381. doi: 10.1016/j.ssmph.2016.04.009

Cómo citar
Khodarahimi, S. ., Ghadampour, E., & Karami , . A. . (2021). Los roles del bienestar espiritual y la tolerancia a la incertidumbre en la predicción de la felicidad en los ancianos. Anales de Psicología / Annals of Psychology, 37(2), 371-377. https://doi.org/10.6018/analesps.446871
Psicología de la vejez