Multidimensional Assessment of Giftedness: Criterion Validity of Battery of Intelligence and Creativity Measures in Predicting Arts and Academic Talents

  • Tatiana de Cassia Nakano Pontifícia Universidade Católica de Campinas
  • Ricardo Primi Universidade São Francisco
  • Walquiria de Jesus Ribeiro Universidade Federal do Maranhão
  • Leandro S. Almeida Universidade do Minho
Keywords: Giftedness, Talent, Creativity, Intelligence, Multidimensional assessment, Metaphor Production, Fluid Reasoning


We test the utility of the Battery for Giftedness Assessment (BaAH/S) in identifying differences in two groups of already known gifted students in the areas of academic and artistic talents. Four latent factors were assessed (a) fluid intelligence, (b) metaphor production (verbal creativity), (c) figural fluency (figural creativity), and (d) divergent thinking figural task quality (figural creativity). A sample of 987 children and adolescents, 464 boys and 523 girls, of ages ranging from 8 to 17 of two groups: regular students (N=866) and gifted students (N= 67 academic abilities, N=34 artistic abilities and N=20 no domain identified). Academic giftedness group of have higher reasoning, can produce more remote/original metaphors, high figural fluency and drawings rated as more original. Children in the group of artistic giftedness have higher reasoning, high figural fluency and drawings rated as more original. Reasoning abilities are relatively higher in academic giftedness group than artistic (r = .39 vs r =.14). Within artistic group figural fluency and ratings of originality are relatively more important than reasoning (r = .25 and r = .21 vs .14). We emphasizes the importance of assessing creativity in different domains in addition to intelligence to improve the understanding of giftedness and talent.


Download data is not yet available.


Baer, J. (1994). Divergent thinking is not a general trait: A multi-domain training experiment. Creativity Research Journal, 7, 35-46.

Baer, J., & Kaufman, J. C. (2005). Bridging generality and specificity: The Amusement Park Theoretical (APT) Model of Creativity. Roeper Review, 27, 158-163.

Barros, D.P., Primi, R., Miguel, F.K., Almeida, L., & Oliveira, E.P. (2010). Metaphor creation: a measure of creativity or intelligence? European Journal of Education and Psychology, 3(1), 103-115.

Beghetto, R.A., Plucker, J.A., & MaKinster, J.G. (2001). Who studies creativity and how do we know? Creativity Research Journal, 13(3/4), 351-357.

Benedek, M., Mühlmann, C., Jauk, E., & Neubauer, A. C. (2013). Assessment of divergent thinking by means of the subjective top-scoring method: Effects of the number of top-ideas and time-on-task on reliability and validity. Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts, 7(4), 341.

Besjes-de Bock, K.M., & Ruyter, D.J. (2011). Five values of giftedness. Roeper Review, 33, 198-207. DOI: 10.1080/02783193.2011.580502

Borsboom, D., & Mellenbergh, G. J. (2007). Test validity in cognitive assessment. In Leighton, J. P. & Gierl, M. J. (Eds.), Cognitive diagnostic assessment for education: Theory and applications (pp. 85–115). New York: Cambridge University Press.

Bracken, B. A., & Brown, E. F. (2006). Behavioral identification and assessment of gifted and talented students. Journal of Psychological Assessment, 24(2), 112-122. doi: 10.1177/0734282905285246

Calero, M. D., & García-Martin, M. B. (2014). Estabilidad temporal del C.I. y potencial de aprendizaje en ninos superdotados: implicaciones diagnósticas [Temporal stability of C.I. and learning potential of gifted children: diagnostic implications]. Anales de Psicologia, 39(2), 512-521.

Callahan, C. M. (2006). Developing a plan for evaluating a program in gifted education. In J. H. Purcell & R. D. Eckert (Eds.), Designing services and programs for high ability learners: A guidebook for gifted education (pp. 195–206). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.

Chart, H., Grigorenko, E. L, & Sternberg, R. J. (2008). Identification: The Aurora Battery. In J. A. Plucker & C. M. Callahan (Eds), Critical issues and practices in gifted education (pp. 345-365). Waco, TX: Prufrock Press.

Chase, C. I. (1985). Review of the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking. In J.V. Mitchell Jr. (Org.). The ninth mental measurements yearbook (pp.1631-1632). Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.

Chen, C., Kasof, J., Himsel, A.J., Greenberger, E., Dong, Q., & Xue, G. (2002). Creativity in drawings of geometric shapes: a cross-cultural examination with the consensual assessment technique. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 33(2), 171-187.

Chiappe, D. L., & Chiappe, P. (2007). The role of working memory in metaphor production and comprehension. Journal of Memory and Language, 56, 172-188.

Clapham, M. M. (1998). Structure of figural forms A and B of the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 58, 275-283.

Cramond, B., Matthews-Morgan, J., Bandalos, D., & Zuo, L. (2005). A report on the 40-year follow-up of the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking: Alive and well in the new millennium. Gifted Child Quarterly, 49, 283–291.

Cropley, A. (2000). Defining and measuring creativity: Are creativity tests worth using? Roeper Review, 23, 72-79.

Dai, D. Y., Swanson, J.A., & Cheng, H. (2011). State of research on giftedness and gifted education: a survey of empirical studies published during 1998-2010 (April). Gifted Child Quaterly, 55 (2), 126- 138.

David, A. P., Morais, M. D. F., Primi, R., & Miguel, F. K. (2014). Metáforas e pensamento divergente: criatividade, escolaridade e desempenho em Artes e Tecnologias. Avaliação Psicológica, 13(2), 147-156.

Epskamp, S. (2015): semPlot: Unified Visualizations of Structural Equation Models, Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, DOI: 10.1080/10705511.2014.937847

Feist, G. (2004). The evolved fluid specificity of human creative talent. In R. Sternberg, E. Grigorenko, & J. Singer (Eds.), Creativity from potential to realization (pp.57-82). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Gagné, F. (2005). From gifts to talents: The DMGT as a developmental model. In R. J. Sternberg & J. E. Davidson (Eds.), Conceptions of giftedness (2nd ed., pp. 98-120), New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

Gallagher, J. J. (2008). Psychology, psychologist, and gifted students. In S. Pfeiffer (Org.). Handbook of giftedness in children: Psycho-educational theory, research and best practices (pp. 1-11). New York: Springer.

Gardner, H. (1993). Creating minds. New York, NY: Basic Books.

Han, K. (2003). Domain specificity of creativity in young children: How quantitative and qualitative data support it. Journal of Creative Behavior, 37, 117-142.

Heausler, N. L., & Thompson, B. (1988). Structure of the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 48, 463-468.

Heller, K. A. (2013). Findings form Munich Longitudinal Study of Giftedness and their impact on identification, education and counseling. Talent Development & Excellence, 5(1), 51-64.

Hérnandez-Torrano, D., Férrandiz, C., Ferrando, M., Prieto, L., & Férnandez, M. C. (2014). The theory of multiple intelligences in the identification of high abilities students. Anales de Psicologia, 30(1), 192-200.

Jarosewich, T., Pfeiffer, S., & Morris, J. (2002). Identifying gifted students using teacher rating scales: A review of existing instruments. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 20, 322-336.

Kaufman, J. C., Baer, J., Agars, M. D., & Loomis, D. (2010). Creativity stereotypes and the consensual assessment technique. Creativity Research Journal, 22(2), 200-205.

Kaufman, J. C., Lee, J., Baer, J., & Lee, S. (2007). Captions, consistency, creativity and the consensual assessment technique: new evidence of reliability. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 2, 96-106.

Kaufman, J. C., Plucker, J. A., & Russell, C. M. (2012). Identifying and assessment creativity as a component of giftedness. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 30, 60-73.

Kaufman, S. B., & Sternberg, R. J. (2008). Conceptions of giftedness. In S. Pfeiffer (Ed.), Handbook of giftedness in children: Psycho-Educational theory, research and best practices (pp. 71-91). New York: Springer.

Kazmerski, V., Blasko, D., & Dessalegn, B. (2003). ERP and behavioral evidence of individual differences in metaphor comprehension. Memory & Cognition, 31, 673–689.

Kerr, B., & Sodano, S. (2003) Career assessment with intellectually gifted students. Journal of Career Assessment, 11, 168-186.

Kim, K. H. (2006). Can we trust creativity tests? A review of the Torrance tests of creative thinking (TTCT). Creativity Research Journal, 18, 3-14.

Kogan, N., & Pankove, E. (1974). Long-term predictive validity of divergent-thinking tests: Some negative evidence. Journal of Educational Psychology, 66, 802-809.

Lemons, G. (2011). Diverse perspectives of creativity testing: controversial issues when used for inclusion into gifted programs. Journal for the Education of the Gifted, 34(5), 742-772.

Li, H., Lee, D., Pfeiffer, S. I., Kamata, A., Kumtepe, A. T., & Rosado, J. (2009) Measurement invariance of the Gifted Rating Scales – school form across five cultural groups. School Psychology Quarterly, 4 (3), 186-198.

Lichtenberger, E. O., Volker, M. A., Kaufman, A. S., & Kaufman, N. L. (2006). Assessing gifted children with the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children - second edition (KABC·II). Gifted Education International, 21, 99-126.

Love, J., Selker, R., Marsman, M., Jamil, T., Dropmann, D., Verhagen, A. J., Ly, A., Gronau, Q. F., Smira, M., Epskamp, S., Matzke, D., Wild, A., Knight, P., Rouder, J. N., Morey, R. D., & Wagenmakers, E.-J. (2015). JASP (Version 0.7.1)[Computer software].

Lubisnki, D., Schmidt, D. B., & Benbow, C. P. (1996). A 20-year stability analysis of the study of values for intellectually gifted individuals from adolescence to adulthood. Journal of Applied Psychology, 81(4), 443-451.

MacIntosh, R., & Hashim, S. (2003). Variance estimation for converting MIMIC model parameters to IRT parameters in DIF analysis. Applied Psychological Measurement, 27(5), 372-379.

Miller, E. M., & Cohen, L. M. (2012). Engendering talent in others: expanding domains of giftedness and creativity. Roeper Review, 34, 104-113.

Montero-Linares, J., Navarro-Guzmán, J. I., & Aguilar-Villagrán, M. (2013). Procesos de automatización cognitiva en alumnado con altas capacidades intelectuales [Cognitive processes automation in highly gifted students]. Anales de Psicologia, 29(2), 454-461.

Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (2010). Mplus User’s Guide. Sixth Edition. Los Angeles, CA: Muthén & Muthén.

Nakano, T. C., & Primi, R. (2014). Rasch-Master's Partial Credit Model in the Assessment of Children's Creativity in Drawings. The Spanish Journal of Psychology, 17, 1-16.

Nakano, T. C., Primi, R., Abreu, I. C. C., Gozzoli, M. Z., Caporossi, D. C., Miliani, A. F. M., & Martins, A. A. (2015). Bateria para avaliação das altas habilidades/superdotação: análise dos itens via Teoria de Resposta ao Item [Battery for Assessment of giftedness: analysis conducted using Item Response Theory]. Estudos de Psicologia (Campinas), 32(4), 725-737.

Nakano, T. C., Wechsler, S. M., Campos, C. R., & Milian, Q. G. (2015). Intelligence and creativity: relationships and their implications for Positive Psychology. Psico-USF, 20(2), 195-206.

Nakano, T. C., Wechsler, S. M., & Primi, R. (2011). Teste de Criatividade Figural Infantil [Test of the Children’s Figural Creativity]. São Paulo: Editora Vetor.

Pfeiffer, S. I. (2015). El modelo tripartido sobre la alta capacidad y las mejores prácticas en la evaluación de los más capaces. Revista de Educación, 368, 66-95.

Pierson, E. E., Kilmer, L. M., Rothlisberg, B. A., & McIntosh, D. E. (2012). Use of brief intelligence tests in the identification of giftedness. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessement, 30(1), 10-24.

Plucker, J. A. (1999). Is the proof in the pudding? Reanalysis of Torrance’s (1958 to present) longitudinal data. Creativity Research Journal, 12, 103-114.

Plucker, J. A., & Runco, M. A. (1998). The death of creativity measurement has been greatly exaggerated: current issues, recent advances, and future directions in creativity assessment. Roeper Review, 21(1), 36-39.

Primi, R. (2014). Divergent Productions of Metaphors: Combining Many-Facet Rasch Measurement and Cognitive Psychology in the Assessment of Creativity. Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts (online publication).

Primi, R., & Almeida, L. S. (2000). Baterias de Provas de Raciocínio (BPR-5): Manual técnico [Battery for Reasoning Tests: technical manual]. São Paulo: Casa do Psicólogo.

Primi, R., Miguel, F.K., Couto, G. & Muniz, M. (2007). Precisão de avaliadores na avaliação da criatividade por meio da produção de metáforas [Inter rater reliability in the creativity assessment using metaphor production]. PsicoUSF, 12 (2), 197-210.

Primi, R., Nakano, T.C., Morais, M.F., Almeida, L.S. & David, A.P.M. (2013). Factorial Structure analysis of the Torrance test in Portuguese students. Estudos de Psicologia (Campinas), 30(1), 19-28.

Renzulli, J. S. (2005). The three-ring definition of giftedness: A developmental model for promoting creative productivity. In R. J. Sternberg & J. E. Davidson (Eds.), Conceptions of giftedness (2nd ed., pp.246-280). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

Renzulli, J. S., & Gaesser, A. H. (2015). Un sistema multicriterial para la identificación del alumnado de alto rendimiento y de alta capacidad creativo-productiva. Revista de Educación, 368, 96-131.

Revelle, W. (2015) Psych: Procedures for Personality and Psychological Research, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois, USA, Version = 1.5.8.

Ribeiro, W. J., Nakano, T. C., & Primi, R. (2014). Validade da estrutura fatorial de uma Bateria de Avaliação de Altas Habilidades [Validity of the Factor Structure of a Battery of Assessment of High Abilities]. Psico, 45(1), 100-109.

Robinson, A., & Clinkenbeard, P. R. (2008). History of giftedness: perspectives from the past presage modern scholarship. In S. Pfeiffer (Org.). Handbook of giftedness in children: Psycho-Educational theory, research and best practices (pp. 13-31). New York: Springer.

Roid, G. H. (2003). Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales, Fifth Edition. Itasca, IL: Riverside Publishing.

Rosseel, Y. (2012). lavaan: An R Package for Structural Equation Modeling. Journal of Statistical Software, 48(2), 1-36. URL

Runco, M. A., Millar, G., Acar, S., & Crammond, B. (2011). Torrance tests of creative thinking as a predictor of personal and public achievement: a fifty-year follow-up. Creativity Research Journal, 22(4), 361-368.

Runco, M. A., & Mraz, W. (1992). Scoring divergent thinking tests using total ideational output and a creativity index. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 52, 213-221.

Schneider, W. J., & McGrew, K. (2012). The Cattell-Horn-Carroll model of intelligence. In, D. Flanagan & P. Harrison (Eds.), Contemporary intellectual assessment: Theories, tests, and issues (3rd ed.) (pp. 99-144). New York: Guilford.

Schraw, G. (2005). Review of the Khatena-Torrance Creative Perception Inventory. In R. Spies & B. Plake (Eds.), The sixteenth mental measurements yearbook (pp. 542-543). Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.

Silvia, P. J. (2007). An introduction to multilevel modeling for research on the psychology of art and creativity. Empirical Studies of the Arts, 25(1), 1/20.

Silvia, P. J. (2011). Subjective scoring of divergent thinking: examining the reliability of unusual uses, instances and consequences tasks. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 6, 24-30.

Silvia, P. J. (2015). Intelligence and creativity are pretty similar after all. Educational Psychological Review (online publication).

Silvia, P. J., & Beaty, R. E. (2012). Making creative metaphors: the importance of fluid intelligence for creative thought. Intelligence, 40, 343-351.

Silvia, P. J., Martin, C., & Nusbaum, E. C. (2009). A snapshot of creativity: evaluating a quick and simple method for assessing divergent thinking. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 4, 79-85.

Silvia, P. J., Winterstein, B. P., & Willse, J. T. (2008). The madness to our method: some thoughts on divergent thinking. Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity and the Arts, 2(2), 109-114.

Sternberg, R. J. (1981). A componential theory of intellectual giftedness. Gifted Child Quarterly, 25, 86–93.

Sternberg, R. J. (2003). WICS: Wisdom, Intelligence, and Creativity, Synthesized. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Sternberg, R. J. (2010). Assessment of gifted students for identification purposes: new techniques for a new millennium. Learning and Individual Differences, 20, 327-336. doi:10.1016/j.lindif.2009.08.003

Subotnik, R. F., Olszeski-Kubilius, P., & Worrell, F. C. (2011). Rethinking giftedness and gifted education: a proposed direction forward based on Psychological Science. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 12(1), 3-54.

Torrance, E. P. (1969). Curiosity of gifted children and performances on timed and untimed tests of creativity. Gifted Child Quarterly, 13, 155-158.

Torrance, E. P. (1972). Predictive validity of the Torrance tests of creative thinking. Journal of Creative Behaviour, 6, 236-252.

Torrance, E. P. (1987). Future career image as a predictor of creative achievement in the 22-year longitudinal study. Psychology Reports, 60, 574.

Torrance, E. P. (2002). The manifest: A guide to developing a creative career. Westport, CT: Ablex.

Torrance, E. P., & Wu, T. H. (1981). A comparative longitudinal study of adult creative achievements of elementary school children identified as high intelligence and highly creative. Creativity Child Adult Quarterly, 6, 71-76.

Van Tassel-Baska, J., Feng, A. X., & Evans, B. L. (2007). Patterns of identification and performance among gifted students identified through performance tasks. Gifted Child Quarterly, 51(3), 218-231. Doi: 10.1177/0016986207302717.

Virgolim, A. M. R. (1997). O indivíduo superdotado: história, concepção e identificação [The gifted Individual: history, conception and identification]. Psicologia Teoria e Pesquisa, 13(1), 173-183.

Volker, M. A., & Phelps, L. (2004). Identification of gifted students with the WISC–IV. In D. P. Flanagan & A. S. Kaufman (Eds.), Essentials of WISC–IV assessment (pp. 216–224). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

Wilson, R. C., Guilford, J. P., & Christesen, P. R. (1953). The measurement of individual differences in originality. Psychological Bulletin, 50(5), 362-370. doi: 10.1037/h0060857

Zeng, L., Proctor, R. W., & Salvendy, G. (2011). Can traditional divergent thinking tests be trusted in measuring and predicting real-world creativity? Creativity Research Journal, 23(1), 24-37.

How to Cite
Nakano, T. de C., Primi, R., Ribeiro, W. de J., & Almeida, L. S. (2016). Multidimensional Assessment of Giftedness: Criterion Validity of Battery of Intelligence and Creativity Measures in Predicting Arts and Academic Talents. Anales De Psicología / Annals of Psychology, 32(3), 628-637.
Monographic theme: High Ability (giftedness and talent)

Most read articles by the same author(s)