Psychometric validation of the Environmental Reward Observation Scale (EROS) in breast cancer survivors

  • Concepcion Fernández-Rodríguez Universidad de Oviedo.Dpto de Psicología
  • Sonia González-Fernández Universidad de Oviedo
  • Ignacio Pedrosa Universidad de Oviedo
Keywords: cancer survivors, Environmental Reward Observation Scale (EROS), depression, anxiety.


The loss of rewards resulting from oncological disease has been associated with emotional problems in cancer survivors. The Environmental Reward Observation Scale (EROS) evaluates environmental reinforcement and is based on behavioral models which show the relationship between environmental reinforcement and emotional state. The aim of this study is to analyze the psychometrical properties of this scale in breast cancer survivors and its usefulness in discriminating between survivors with and without emotional disorders. A total of 219 women survivors (Mage= 52.97; SDag= 7.50) completed measures of environmental reinforcement, behavioral activation and avoidance, and emotional state. Data fit an essentially unidimensional structure, showing high internal consistency and correlations, varying from moderate to high, with all the measures used. In the EROS scores, statistically significant differences were found between participants with and without emotional disorders. Optimum cut-off point to discriminate between anxiety and depression was established via Receiver Operating Characteristic curve. Using the framework of the Item Response Theory model, all the items were found to have a power of discrimination for measuring environmental reinforcement ranging from moderate to high. The EROS is a psychometrically sound instrument, which can be used to improve assessment of emotional state in breast cancer survivors. 


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Author Biographies

Concepcion Fernández-Rodríguez, Universidad de Oviedo.Dpto de Psicología

Concepción Fernández-Rodríguez is a Full Professor of Behavior Therapy  at the University of  Oviedo (Spain).  Director of the Clinical and Health Psychology Unit, University of Oviedo.  Her research interests cover the following areas:  Contextual Therapies, Treatment Outcome and Psycho-oncology.  She has served as PI  on several related research and services grants funded by Spanish Government  to assess the efficacy  of contextual therapy. She is authored/co-authored and edited  seven books and  over  a hundred refereed articles in peer reviewed professional journals.  


Sonia González-Fernández, Universidad de Oviedo

Sonia González-Fernández is a licensed clinical psychologist and a pre-doctoral student of the University of Oviedo (Spain). Her research subject is the efficacy of contextual therapy implemented on a group basis for the treatment of depression in cancer patients. She has specialized in Psycho-oncology. She has authored/co-authored several refereed articles in peer-reviewed professional journals.

Ignacio Pedrosa, Universidad de Oviedo

Ignacio Pedrosa, is a research expert on the area of methodology of Behavioral Science. His main areas of research are in relation to robust statistical procedures for repeated measures and for incomplete data, in both experimental and quasi-experimental designs, and analysis of research quality. He has authored/co-authored several refereed articles in peer-reviewed professional journals.


I´ve attached a list of some of the distinguished teachers and researchers in the field of Psychological Evaluation and/or Psycho-oncology. Their specialization and knowledge of the peculiarities of the study-population, allow us to consider them adequate reviewers for our paper. There are no conflicts of interest between these candidates and the authors of the article.

Aurélie Wagener e-mail:

Sylvie Blairy e-mail:

Behavioural and Cognitive Clinical Psychology Unit, University of Liège, Liège,

José Muñiz Fernandez e-mail:

Facultad de Psicología

Universidad de Oviedo

Plaza Feijoo, 33003 Oviedo, Spain

María José Galdón e-mail:

Yolanda Andréu e-mail:

Facultad de Psicología

Universitat de Valencia

Avda Blasco Ibáñez, 21

Valencia. Spain

Mario Andrés Valderrama-Díaz e-mail:

Javier Mauricio Bianchi-Salguero e-mail:

Fundación Universitaria Konrad Lorenz, Colombia

Pontificia Universidad Javeriana

How to Cite
Fernández-Rodríguez, C., González-Fernández, S., & Pedrosa, I. (2019). Psychometric validation of the Environmental Reward Observation Scale (EROS) in breast cancer survivors. Anales De Psicología / Annals of Psychology, 36(1), 74-83. Retrieved from
Clinical and Health Psychology