Locus of Control revisited: Development of a new bi-dimensional measure

  • Javier Suárez-Álvarez University of Oviedo
  • Ignacio Pedrosa University of Oviedo
  • Eduardo García-Cueto University of Oviedo
  • José Muñiz University of Oviedo
Keywords: Internal locus of control, external locus of control, dimensionality, validity.


Locus of control (LOC) has a long tradition in Psychology, and various instruments have been designed for its measurement. However, the dimensionality of the construct is unclear, and still gives rise to considerable controversy. The aim of the present work is to present new evidence of validity in relation to the dimensionality of LOC. To this end, we developed a new measurement instrument with 23 items. The sample was made up of 697 Spanish participants, of whom 57.5% were women (M=22.43; SD= 9.19). The results support the bi-dimensionality of LOC: internal (α=.87) and external (α=.85). Furthermore, both subscales have shown adequate validity evidence in relation to self-efficacy, achievement motivation and optimism (rxy> .21). Statistically significant differences were found by sex (p < .05): men scored higher in external LOC and women in internal LOC. The validity evidence supports a two-dimensional structure for the LOC, and the measurement instrument developed showed adequate psychometric properties.


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Author Biographies

Javier Suárez-Álvarez, University of Oviedo
Teaching and research staff. Department of Psychology. University of Oviedo.
Ignacio Pedrosa, University of Oviedo
Teaching and research staff. Department of Psychology. University of Oviedo.
Eduardo García-Cueto, University of Oviedo
Professor of  Psychometrics. Department of Psychology University of Oviedo.
José Muñiz, University of Oviedo
Professor of  Psychometrics. Department of Psychology. University of Oviedo.


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How to Cite
Suárez-Álvarez, J., Pedrosa, I., García-Cueto, E., & Muñiz, J. (2016). Locus of Control revisited: Development of a new bi-dimensional measure. Anales De Psicología / Annals of Psychology, 32(2), 578-586.