Psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the Protective Factors of Resilience Scale (PFRS)

Keywords: Resilience questionnaire, Spanish population, Illness, Protective factors, Instrumental study


Background/Objective: The purpose of the present study was to adapt the Protective Factors of Resilience Scale (PFRS) to Spanish and to analyze its psychometric properties. Method: The scale was translated and adapted into Spanish, then, two studies were carried out to examine its psychometric properties in two samples (healthy and chronic illness). Questionnaires were sent by email, Facebook, and Whatsapp, and 442 adults completed all the questionnaires. The entire sample included 352 healthy people and 90 with a chronic illness. Results: In both samples, confirmatory factor analyses confirmed the scale’s structure, yielding a Spanish version of PFRS with three factors. The PFRS total and subscales scores showed adequate reliability. Concurrent validity was also confirmed; the PFRS was positively correlated with different measures. Conclusions: Therefore, the Spanish version of this scale is a reliable and valid instrument to assess protective factors (internal and external resources) of resilience both in Spanish general and chronically ill populations.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Eva León, Miguel Hernandez University

Behavioural Science and Health Department

Marie-Carmen Neipp, Miguel Hernandez University

Health Psychology Department

Rosa Nuñez, Miguel Hernandez University

Behavioural Science and Health Department


Bolton, K. W., Praetorius, R. T., & Smith-Osborne, A. (2016). Resilience Protective Factors in an Older Adult Population: A Qualitative Interpretive Meta-Synthesis. Social Work Research, 40(3), 171-182.

Coronado-Hijón, A, (2017). Academic Resilience: A Transcultural Perspective. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 237, 594-598.

Crespo, M., Fernández-Lansac, V., & Soberón, C. (2014). Adaptación española de la “Escala de Resiliencia de Connor-Davidson” (CD-RISC) en situaciones de estrés Crónico [Spanish adaptation of the "Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale" (CD-RISC) in situations of Chronic stress]. Behavioral Psychology, 22(2), 219-238.

Cronly, J., Duff, A., Riekert, K., Horgan, A., Lehane, E., Perry, I., Fitzgerald, A., Howe, B., Chroinin, M., & Savage, E. (2019). Positive mental health and wellbeing in adults with cystic fibrosis: A cross sectional study, Journal of Psychosomatic Research, (116), 125-130.

Ellis, B. J., Bianchi, J. M., Griskevicius, V., & Frankenhuis, W. E. (2017). Beyond Risk and Protective Factors: An Adaptation-Based Approach to Resilience. Perspective on Psychological Science, 12(4), 561-587.

Dias, P. C., & Cadime, I. (2017). Protective factors and resilience in adolescents: The mediating role of self-regulation. Psicología Educativa, 23(1), 37-43.

Díaz, D., Rodríguez-Carvajal, R., Blanco, A., Moreno-Jiménez, B., Gallardo, I., Valle, C. & Dierendonck, D. V. (2006). Adaptación española de las escalas de bienestar psicológico de Ryff [Spanish adaptation of Ryff's psychological well-being scales]. Psicothema, 18(3), 572-577.

Hamby, S., Grych, J., & Banyard, V. (2018). Resilience portfolios and poly-strengths: Identifying protective factors associated with thriving after adversity. Psychology of Violence, 8(2), 172-183.

Harms, C., Pooley, J.A., & Cohen, L. (2017). The protective factors for resilience scale (PFRS): Development of the scale. Cogent Psychology, 4, 1400415.

Harms, C., Cohen, L., Pooley, J.A., Chambers, S., Galvão, D., & Newton, R. (2019). Quality of life and psychological distress in cancer survivors: The role of psycho‐social resources for resilience. Psycho‐Oncology, 28, 271–277.

Hjemdal, O., Friborg, O., Stiles, T. C., Rosenvinge, J. H., & Martinussen, M. (2006). Resilience predicting psychiatric symptoms: A prospective study of protective factors and their role in adjustment to stressful life events. Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, 13, 194–201.

Hu, L., & Bentler, P.M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 6, 1-55,

Lee J. H., Nam, S. K., Kim, A. R., Kim, B., Lee, M. Y., & Lee, S. M. (2013). Resilience: a meta-analytic approach. Journal of Counseling Development, 91, 269–279.

Lee, D., Boseok, C., Chul-Soo, P., Bong-Jo, K., Cheol-Soon, L., So-Jin, L., Ji-Yeong, S., Young, A.C., Jong, H., Jong, H.H., & Jae-Won, C. (2017). Effects of resilience on quality of life in patients with bipolar disorder. Journal of Affective Disorders, 207, 434-441.

Lorenzo-Seva, U. (1999). Promin: a method for oblique factor rotation. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 34, 347-365.

Lorenzo-Seva, U. & Ferrando, P. J. (2006). FACTOR: a computer program to fit the exploratory Factor Analysis model. Behavioral Research Methods, 38, 88-91.

Lozano, L. M., García-Cueto, E., & Muñiz, J. (2008) Effect of the number of response categories on the reliability and validity of rating scales. Methodology, 4, 73-79.

Luthar, S., Cicchetti, D., & Becker, B. (2000). The Construct of Resilience: A Critical Evaluation and Guidelines for Future Work. Child Development, 71(3), 543-562.

Masten, A. S., & Narayan, A. J. (2012) Child development in the context of disaster, war, and terrorism: Pathways of risk and resilience. Annual Review of Psychology, 63(1), 227-257.

Miles, J. & Shevlin, M. (1998). Effects of sample size, model specification and factor loadings on the GFI in confirmatory factor analysis, Personality and Individual Differences, 25, 85-90.

Otero, J. M., Luengo, A., Romero, E. Gómez, J. A. & Castro, C. (1998). Psicología de personalidad. Manual de prácticas [Personality psychology. Practice Manual]. Barcelona: Ariel Practicum.

Pooley, J., & Cohen, L. (2010). Resilience: A Definition in Context. Australian Community Psychologist, 22, 30-37.

Rahiem, H. M. D., Krauss, S. E., & Rahim, H. (2018). The Child Victims of the Aceh Tsunami: Stories of Resilience, Coping and Moving on with Life. Procedia Engineering, 212, 1303–1310.

Ryff, C. (1989). Beyond Ponce de Leon and life satisfaction: New directions in quest of successful aging. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 12, 35-55.

Rodríguez-Rey, T., Alonso-Tapia, J. & Hernansaiz-Garrido, H. (2016). Reliability and Validty of the Brief Resilience Scale (BRS) Spanish Version. Psychological Assessment, 26(5), e101–e110.

Rosenberg, M. (1965). Society and the adolescent self-image. Editorial Princenton. University Press. Princenton.

Rutter, M. (2012). Resilience as a dynamic concept. Development and Psychopathology, 24(2), 335-344. doi:

Scheier, M. F. L., Carver, C.S., & Bridges, M. W. (1994). Distinguishing optimism from neuroticism (and trait anxiety, self-mastery, and self-esteem): a reevaluation of the Life Orientation Test. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67(6), 1063-78.

Smith, B. W., Dalen, J., Wiggins, K., Tooley, E., Christopher, P., & Bernard, J. (2008). The Brief Resilience Scale: Assessing the Ability to Bounce Back. International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 15(3), 194-200.

Ungar, M. (2013). Resilience, Trauma, Context, and Culture. Trauma Violence Abuse, 14(3), 255-66. https//doi: 10.1177/1524838013487805.

Timmerman, M. E. & Lorenzo-Seva, U. (2011). Dimensionality Assessment of Ordered Polytomous Items with Parallel Analysis. Psychological Methods, 16, 209-220.

Vázquez, A. J., García-Bóveda, R., & Vázquez-Morejón, R. (2004). Escala de autoestima de Rosenberg: fiabilidad y validez en población clínica española [Rosenberg self-esteem scale: reliability and validity in the Spanish clinical population]. Apuntes de psicología, 22(2), 247-255.

Windle, G., Bennett, K. M., & Noyes, J. (2011). A methodological review of resilience measurement scales. Health Quality of Life Outcomes, 9(8), 1-18.

How to Cite
León, E., Neipp López, M. del C., & Nuñez, R. M. (2020). Psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the Protective Factors of Resilience Scale (PFRS). Anales De Psicología / Annals of Psychology, 36(3), 468-474.
Clinical and Health Psychology