Neurodevelopmental difficulties as a comprehensive category of learning disabilities in children with developmental delay: a systematic review

  • Eva María Taboada Ares Dpto. de Psicología Evolutiva y de la Educación. Universidad de Santiago de Compostela
  • Patricia María Iglesias Souto 1Department of Developmental and Educational Psychology. . University of Santiago de Compostela-Spain http://orcid.org/0000-0003-3353-9013
  • Santiago López Gómez 1Department of Developmental and Educational Psychology. University of Santiago de Compostela-Spain. http://orcid.org/0000-0001-9519-4722
  • Rosa María Rivas Torres 1Department of Developmental and Educational Psychology. University of Santiago de Compostela-Spain.
Keywords: developmental delay, learning disabilities, neurodevelopmental difficulties, neurodevelopmental disabilities, academic achievement

Abstract

A considerable number of students have learning difficulties and low academic performance, yet their evaluation does not always lead to a concrete diagnosis. They are categorized as immature, but neither the nature nor the characteristics of their difficulties are determined. The aim of this study was to identify the developmental domains which are affected in children with developmental delay (DD) in order to assess the concept of neurodevelopmental difficulties as a comprehensive category and profile of generalized learning difficulties. To this end, a systematic review was carried out on the electronic databases Medline, PsycINFO, WOS, Eric, Dialnet and CSIC and, after applying the inclusion criteria, 18 articles were selected. The results confirm that DD is used as a diagnostic label to characterize children with significant delays in one or more developmental domains, but there is no definition of consensus nor specific criteria for its diagnosis, and it would only be applicable to young children. The affected domains coincide with neurodevelopmental functions, and biological and environmental risk factors stand out in their aetiology. Neurodevelopmental difficulties would encompass a wide spectrum of deficits with different levels of severity that, on interacting with each other, give rise to a variety of profiles.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

American Psychiatric Association (APA). (2014). Manual Diagnóstico y estadístico de los Trastornos Mentales, DSM-5. Madrid: Editorial Médica Panamericana.

Artigas-Pallarés, J., & Narvona, J. (2011). Trastornos del neurodesarrollo. Barcelona: Viguera.

Artigas-Pallarés, J., Rigau-Ratera, E., & García-Nonell, C. (2007). Relación entre capacidad de inteligencia límite y trastornos del neurodesarrollo. Revista de Neurología, 44(12), 739-744. Recuperado de https://www.neurologia.com/articulo/2006434

Aylward, G.P. (2009). Developmental screening and assessment: What are we thinking? Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 30, 169-173. doi: 10.1097/DBP.0b013e31819f1c3e

Ballantyne, M., Benzies, K.M., McDonald, S., Magill-Evans, J., & Tough, S. (2016). Risk of developmental delay: Comparison of late preterm and full term Canadian infants at age 12 months. Early Human Development, 101, 27-32. doi: 10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2016.04.004

Bernheimer, L.P., Keogh, B.K., & Coots, J.J. (1993). From research to practice: support for developmental delay as a preschool category of exceptionality. Journal of Early Intervention, 17, 97-106. doi: 10.1177/105381519301700202

Campos-Castelló, J. (2013). Retraso madurativo neurológico. Revista de Neurología, 57(Supp. l1), S211-S219. Recuperado de https://www.neurologia.com/articulo/2013254

Charkaluk, M., Rousseau, J., Calderon, J., Bernard, J.Y., Forhan, A., & Heude, B. (2017). Ages and Stages Questionnaire at 3 years for predicting IQ at 5–6 years. Pediatrics, 139(4), 1-9. doi: 10.1542/peds.2016-2798

D’Souza, H., & Karmiloff-Smith, A. (2017). Neurodevelopmental disorders. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Cognitive Science, 8(1-2), e1398. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1398

*De los Reyes-Aragón, C.J., Amar, J., De Castro, A., Lewis, S., Madariaga, C., & Abello-Llanos, R. (2016). The care and development of children living in contexts of poverty. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 25, 3637-3643. doi: 10.1007%2Fs10826-016-0514-6

*Delgado, C.E.F. (2009). Fourth grade outcomes of children with a preschool history of developmental disability. Education and Training in Developmental Disabilities, 44, 573-579. Recuperado de http://www.jstor.org/stable/24234264

*Delgado, C.E.F., Vagi, S.J., & Scott, K.G. (2006). Tracking preschool children with developmental delay: third grade outcomes. American Journal on Mental Retardation, 111, 299-306. doi: 10.1352/0895-8017(2006)111[299:TPCWDD]2.0.CO;2

*Delgado, C.E.F., Vagi, S.J., & Scott, K.G. (2007). Idenfitication of early risk factors of developmental delay. Exceptionality, 15, 119-136. doi: 10.1080/09362830701294185

Dickerson, A., & Popli, G.K. (2016). Persistent poverty and children's cognitive development: Evidence from the UK Millennium Cohort Study. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society: Series A (Statistics in Society), 179, 535-558. doi: 10.111/rssa.12128

*Dornelas, L.F., Duarte, N.M.C., Morales, N.M.O., Pinto, R.M.C., Araújo, R.R.H., Pereira, S.A., & Magalhães, L.C. (2016). Functional Outcome of School Children With History of Global Developmental Delay. Journal of Child Neurology, 31, 1041-1051. doi: 10.1177/0883073816636224

Higgins, J.P.T., & Green, S. (Eds). (2011). Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Intervention Version 5.1.0. Recuperado de: http://handbook-5-1.cochrane.org/

Hillemeier, M.M., Morgan, P.L., Farkas, G., & Maczuga, S.A. (2011). Perinatal and socioeconomic risk factors for variable and persistent cognitive delay at 24 and 48 months of age in a national sample. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 15, 1001-1010. doi: 10.1007/s10995-010-0656-x

*Hsu, J. F., Tsai, M. H., Chu, S. M., Fu, R. H., Chiang, M. C., Hwang, F. M., ... , Huang, Y. S. (2013). Early detection of minor neurodevelopmental dysfunctions at age 6months in prematurely born neonates. Early Human Development, 89, 87-93. doi: 10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2012.08.004

Kayrouz, N., Milne, S.L., & McDonald, J.L. (2017). Social disadvantage and developmental diagnosis in pre-schoolers. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health, 53, 563-568. doi: 10.1111/jpc.13505

Keogh, B.K., Coots, J.J., & Bernheimer, L.P. (1996). School placement of children with nonspecific developmental delays. Journal of Early Intervention, 20, 65-97. doi: 10.1177/105381519602000107

*Kerstjens, J.M., de Winter, A.F., Bocca-Tjeertes, I.F., ten Vergert, E.M.J., Reijneveld, S.A., & Bos, A.F. (2011). Developmental Delay in Moderately Preterm-Born Children at School Entry. The Journal of Pediatrics, 159(1), 92-98. doi: 0.1016/j.jpeds.2010.12.041

Landis, J., & Koch, G. (1977). The measurement of observer agreement for categorical data. Biometrics, 33, 159-174. doi: 10.2307/2529310

*Larroque, B., Ancel, P-Y., Marret, S., Marchand, L., André, M., Arnaud, C., …, Kaminski, M. (2008). Neurodevelopmental disabilities and special care of 5-year-old children born 33 weeks of gestation (the EPIPAGE study): a longitudinal cohort study. The Lancet, 371, 813-820. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(08)60380-3

Leung, G.P., Chan, C.C., Chung, R.C., & Pang, M.Y. (2011). Determinants of activity and participation in preschoolers with developmental delay. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 32, 289-296. doi: 10.1016/j.ridd.2010.10.005

*Månsson, J., & Stjernqvist, K. (2014). Children born extremely preterm show significant lower cognitive, language and motor function levels compared with children born at term, as measured by the Bayley-III at 2.5 years. Acta Pædiatrica, 103, 504-511. doi: 10.1111/apa.12585

Masten, A.S., Burt, K.B., Roisman, G.I., Obradovic, J., Long, J.D., & Tellegen, A. (2004). Resources and resilience in the transition to adulthood: Continuity and change. Development and Psychopathology, 16, 1071–1094. doi: 10.1017/S0954579404040143

*McManus, B.M., Robinson, C.C, & Rosenberg, S.A. (2016). Identifying Infants and Toddlers at High Risk for Persistent Delays. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 20, 639-645. doi: 10.1007/s10995-015-1863-2

Miquelote, A.F., Santos, D.C.C., Caçola, P.M., Montebelo, M.I.L., & Gabbard, C. (2012). Effect of the home environment on motor and cognitive behavior of infants. Infant Behaviour and Development, 35, 329-334. doi: 10.1016/j.infbeh.2012.02.002

Moher, D., Liberati, A., Tetzlaff, J., Altman, D.G., & The PRISMA Group (2009). Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analysis: The PRISMA statement. PLoS Medicine, 6(6), e1000097.doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed1000097

Montes, G., Lotyczewski, B.S., Halterman, J.S., & Hightower, A.D. (2012). School readiness among children with behavior problems at entrance into kindergarten: results from a US national study. European Journal of Pediatrics, 171, 541-548. doi: 10.1007/s00431-011-1605-4

*Mu, S.C., Lin, C.H., Chen, Y.L., Chang, C.H., & Tsou, K.I. (2008). Relationship between perinatal and neonatal indices and intelligence quotient in very low birth weight infants at the age of 6 or 8 years. Pediatrics & Neonatology, 49, 13-18. doi: 10.1016/S1875-9572(08)60005-4

Najman, J.M., Hayatbakhsh, M.R., Heron, M.A., Bor, W., O´Callaghan, M.J., & Williams, G.M. (2009). The impact of episodic and chronic poverty on child cognitive development. The Journal of Pediatrics, 154(2), 284-289. doi: 10.1016/j.peds.2008.08.052

*Nelson, B.B., Dudovitz, R.N., Coker, T.R., Barnert, E.S., Biely, C., Li, N., Szilagyi, P-G., …, Chung, P.J. (2016). Predictors of Poor School Readiness in Children Without Developmental Delay at Age 2. Pediatrics, 138(2), e20154477. doi: 10.1542/peds.2015-4477

Obradovic, J., Burt, K. B., & Masten, A.S. (2010). Testing a dual cascade model linking competence and symptoms over 20 years from childhood to adulthood. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 39, 90-102. doi: 10.1080/15374410903401120

Ozkan, M., Senel, S., Arslan, E.A., & Karacan, C.D. (2012). The socioeconomic and biological risk factors for developmental delay in early childhood. European Journal of Pediatrics, 171, 1815-1821 doi: 10.1007/s00431-012-1826-1

Pereira, K.R., Valentini, N.C., & Saccani, R. (2016). Brazilian Infants’ Motor and Cognitive Development: Longitudinal Influence of Risk Factors. Pediatrics International, 58, 1297-1306. doi: 10.1111/ped.13021

*Perna, R., & Loughan, A. (2012). Early developmental delays: Neuropsychological Sequelae and Subsequent Diagnoses. Applied Neuropsychology: Child, 1, 57-62. doi: 10.1080/09084282.2011.643963

*Potharst, E., Wassenaer-Leemhuis, A.G.V., Houtzager, B.A., Livesey, D., Kok, J.H., Last, B.F., & Oosterlaan, J. (2013). Perinatal risk factors for neurocognitive impairments in preschool children born very preterm. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, 55, 178-184. doi: 10.1111/dmcn.12018

*Potijk, M.R., Kerstjens, J.M., Bos, A.F., Reijneveld, S.A., & de Winter, A.F. (2013). Developmental Delay in Moderately Preterm-Born Children with Low Socioeconomic Status: Risks Multiply. The Journal of Pediatrics, 163(5):1289-1295. doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2013.07.001

Romano, E., Babchishin, L., Pagani, L.S., & Kohen, D. (2010). School readiness and later achievement: replication and extension using a nationwide Canadian survey. Developmental Psychology, 46, 995-1007. doi: 10.1037/a0018880

Rosenberg, S.A., Robinson, C.C., Shaw, E.F., & Ellison, M.C. (2013). Part C early intervention for infants and toddlers: Percentage eligible vs. served. Pediatrics, 131(1), 38-46. doi: 10.1542/peds.2012-1662

Sansavini, A., Guarini, A., & Savini, S. (2011). Retrasos lingüísticos y cognitivos en niños prematuros extremos a los 2 años: ¿Retrasos generales o específicos? Revista de Logopedia, Foniatría y Audiología, 3, 133-147. doi: 10.1016/S0214-4603(11)70182-6

Shea, B.J., Hamel, C.,Wellsd, G.A., Bouter, L.M., Kristjanssonf, E., Grimshawg, J., …, Boersc, M. (2009). AMSTAR is a reliable and valid measurement tool to assess the methodological quality of systematic reviews. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 62, 1013-1020. doi: 10.1016/j.jclinepi.2008.10.009

Shea, B.J., Reeves, B.C., Wells, G., Thuku, M., Hamel, C., Moran, J., Moher, D., ..., Henry, D.A. (2017). AMSTAR 2: a critical appraisal tool for systematic reviews that include randomised or non-randomised studies of healthcare interventions, or both. British Medical Journal, 358, j4008. doi: 10.1136/bmj.j4008

Shonkoff, J.P. (2011). Protecting brains, not simply stimulating minds. Science, 333(6045), 982-983. doi: 10.1126/science.1206014

Spittle, A.J., Walsh, J.M., Potter, C., Mcinnes, E., Olsen, J.E., Lee, K.J., Anderson, P.J., ..., Cheong, J.L.Y. (2017). Neurobehaviour at term‐equivalent age and neurodevelopmental outcomes at 2 years in infants born moderate‐to‐late preterm. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, 59, 207-215. doi: 10.111/dmcn.13297

*Takeuchi, A., Yorifuji, T., Takahashi, K., Nakamura, M., Kageyama, M., Kubo, T., …, Doi, H. (2016). Neurodevelopment in full-term small for gestational age infants: A nationwide Japanese population-based study. Brain and Development, 38, 529–537 doi: 10.1016/j.braindev.2015.12.013

*Theodore, R.F., Thompson, J.M., Waldie, K.E., Becroft, D.M., Robinson, E., Wild, C.J., …, Mitchell, E.A. (2009) Determinants of cognitive ability at 7 years a longitudinal case–control study of children born small-for-gestational age at term. European Journal of Pediatrics, 168, 1217-1224. doi: 10.1007/s00431-008-0913-9

*Wei, Q.W., Zhang, J.X., Scherpbier, R.W., Zhao, C.X., Luo, S.S., Wang, X.L., & Guo, S.F. (2015). High prevalence of developmental delay among children under three years of age in povertystricken areas of China. Public Health, 129,1610-1617. doi: 10.1016/j.puhe.2015.07.036
Published
09-04-2020
How to Cite
Taboada Ares, E. M., Iglesias Souto, P. M., López Gómez, S., & Rivas Torres, R. M. (2020). Neurodevelopmental difficulties as a comprehensive category of learning disabilities in children with developmental delay: a systematic review. Anales De Psicología / Annals of Psychology, 36(2), 271-282. https://doi.org/10.6018/analesps.347741
Section
Developmental and Educational Psychology