Health and Safety at Work in the Transport Industry (TRANS-12): Factorial Structure, Reliability and Validity

  • Jordi Asens-Serra EADA, Business School (EADA, Barcelona, Spain)
  • María-José Serrano-Fernández Universitat Rovira i Virgili (URV, Tarragona, Spain)
  • Maria Boada-Cuerva Universitat Rovira i Virgili (URV, Reus, Spain)
  • Joan Boada-Grau Universitat Rovira i Virgili (URV, Tarragona, Spain)
  • Sergi Macip-Simó Universitat Rovira i Virgili (URV, Tarragona, Spain)
  • Andreu Vigil-Colet Universitat Rovira i Virgili (URV, Tarragona, Spain)
Keywords: Safety behaviors, Psychophysiological disorders, Transport, Scale, Instrumental study


Background: This study sets out the psychometric properties of the TRANS-18 scale and of a shorter version, the TRANS-12, both designed to detect safe behaviors (personal and vehicle-related) and psychophysiological disorders among professional drivers. Method: The investigation was divided into Study 1, into the factorial structure, reliability and validity of the TRANS-18, and Study 2, looking into the same aspects of the TRANS-12. The participants in both studies were resident in Spain. 272 professional drivers took part in Study 1, while Study 2 had 326 participants. Results: A confirmatory factor analysis was carried out for both studies. The results for Study 1 confirm an internal structure of three factors related to psychophysiological disorders and personal and vehicle-related safety behaviors, but the original TRANS-18 is discarded because it does not fit the model. With regard to Study 2, the results show a good fit of the three-factor model, appropriate reliability and evidence of validity. Conclusions: We conclude by considering the suitability of the psychometric properties of the TRANS-12 and its utility for identifying safe behaviors in work in the transport industry.

Author Biographies

María-José Serrano-Fernández, Universitat Rovira i Virgili (URV, Tarragona, Spain)

Faculty of Education Sciences and Psychology

Maria Boada-Cuerva, Universitat Rovira i Virgili (URV, Reus, Spain)

Faculty of Economics and Business

Joan Boada-Grau, Universitat Rovira i Virgili (URV, Tarragona, Spain)

Faculty of Education Sciences and Psychology

Sergi Macip-Simó, Universitat Rovira i Virgili (URV, Tarragona, Spain)

Faculty of Education Sciences and Psychology

Andreu Vigil-Colet, Universitat Rovira i Virgili (URV, Tarragona, Spain)

Faculty of Education Sciences and Psychology


Ahsberg, E. (2000). Dimensions of fatigue in different working populations. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology 41, 231-241.

Ahsberg, E., Gamberale, F., & Kjellberg, A. (1997). Perceived quality of fatigue during different occupational tasks. Development of a questionnaire. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 20, 121-135. S0169-8141(96)00044-3

Álava Urrburu, C., Huerta Rodríguez, I., & Noval Vallina, M. (2011). Revisión bibliográfica exploratoria sobre los criterios de aptitud en conductores profesionales con enfermedad psiquiátrica. Medicina y Seguridad del Trabajo, 57, 41-62. 10.4321/s0465-546x2011000100006

Alperovitch-Najenson, D., Santo, Y., Masharawi, Y., Katz-Leurer, M., Ushvaev, D., & Kalichman, L. (2010). Low back pain among professional bus drivers: ergonomic and occupational-psychosocial risk factors. IMAJ-Israel Medical Association Journal, 12, 26.

Boada-Grau, J., Sánchez-García, J. C., Prizmic-Kuzmica, A. J., & Vigil-Colet, A. (2012). Health and safety at work in the transport industry (Trans-18): factorial structure, reliability and validity. The Spanish Journal of Psychology, 15, 357-366.

Castilla, O. (2012). Observation of unsafe behavior at work: a methodological analysis. Universitas Psychologica, 11, 311-321.

Catarino, R., Spratley, J., Catarino, I., Lunet, N., & Pais-Clemente, M. (2014). Sleepiness and sleep-disordered breathing in truck drivers. Sleep and Breathing, 18, 59-68.

Chai, J., Qu, W., Sun,X., Zhang, K., & Ge, Y. (2016). Negativity Bias in Dangerous Drivers. PLoS One, 11, e0147083

Chen, C. C., Shiu, L. J., Li, Y. L., Tung, K. Y., Chan, K. Y., Yeh, C. J., & Wong, R. H. (2010). Shift work and arteriosclerosis risk in professional bus drivers. Annals of Epidemiology, 20, 60-66.

Clark, O. L., Zickar, M. J., & Jex, S. M. (2014). Role definition as a moderator of the relationship between safety climate and organizational citizenship behavior among hospital nurses. Journal of Business and Psychology, 29, 101-110.

Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics (US) (2016). Employer-reported Workplace Injuries and Illnesses 2015 (USDL-16-2056). Available at: (accessed 18 January 2017).

Đinđić, N., Jovanović, J., Đinđić, B., Jovanović, M., Pešić, M., & Jovanović, J. J. (2013). Work stress related lipid disorders and arterial hypertension in professional drivers: A cross-sectional study. Vojnosanitetski pregled, 70, 561-568.

Dorn, L., Stephen, L., af Wåhlberg, A., & Gandolfi, J. (2010). Development and validation of a self-report measure of bus driver behaviour. Ergonomics, 53, 1420-1433.

Dorrian, J., Baulk, S. D., & Dawson, D. (2011). Work hours, workload, sleep and fatigue in Australian Rail Industry employees. Applied Ergonomics, 42, 202-209.

European Comission (Employment, Social Affairs & Inclusion) (2014). Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions on an EU Strategic Framework on Health and Safety at Work 2014-2020 (COM 2014, 0332 final). Available at: (accessed 25 January 2017)

Eurostat (2016). Accidents at Work Statistics - Statistics Explained. Available at: (accessed 28 January 2017).

Fan, X., & Sivo, S.A. (2007). Sensitivity of fit indices to model misspecification and model types. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 42, 509-529.

Gershon, P., Shinar, D., Oron-Gilad, T., Parmet, Y., & Ronen, A. (2011). Usage and perceived effectiveness of fatigue countermeasures for professional and nonprofessional drivers. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 43, 797-803.

González, J. L., Moreno, B., Garrosa, E., & López, A. (2005). Spanish version of the Swedish Occupational Fatigue Inventory (SOFI): Factor replication, reliability and validity. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 35, 737-746.

Häusser, J. A., Mojzisch, A., Niesel, M., & Schulz-Hardt, S. (2010). Ten years on: A review of recent research on the Job Demand–Control (-Support) model and psychological well-being. Work & Stress, 24, 1-35.

Hirata, R. P., Sampaio, L. M. M., Leitão Filho, F. S. S., Braghiroli, A., Balbi, B., Romano, S., Insalaco, G., & Oliveira, L. V. F. D. (2012). General characteristics and risk factors of cardiovascular disease among interstate bus drivers. The Scientific World Journal, vol. 2012, Article ID 216702, 7 pages, 2012.

Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo (INSHT) (2015).Estrategia Española de Seguridad y Salud en el Trabajo 2015-2020. Gobierno de España. Available at: (accessed 22 January 2017).

Lévy-Mangin, J.P., & Varela-Mallou, J. (2006). Modelling covariance structures in the social sciences. Topics essential, advanced and special contributions. Madrid: Gesbiblo.

Nahrgang, J. D., Morgeson, F. P., & Hofmann, D. A. (2011). Safety at work: a meta-analytic investigation of the link between job demands, job resources, burnout, engagement, and safety outcomes. Journal of Applied Psychology, 96, 71-94.

Nunnally, J. C., & Bernstein, I. H. (1994). Psychometric theory. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) (2014).Strategic Framework 2014-2020 - Employment, Social Affairs & Inclusion. European Commission. Available at: (accessed 17 January 2017).

Öz, B., Özkan, T., & Lajunen, T. (2010). Professional and non-professional drivers’ stress reactions and risky driving. Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, 13, 32-40.

Ramírez, M. G., Hernández, R. L., Reducindo, M. M., Genchi, P. C., Mendoza, R. V., & Jaimes, F. G. (2013). Estrés cotidiano en trabajadores del volante. Summa Psicológica UST (En línea), 10, 85-90.

Robb, M. J. M., & Mansfield, N. J. (2007). Self-reported musculoskeletal problems amongst professional truck drivers. Ergonomics, 50, 814-827.

Robert-Sentís, L. (2016). Occupational health professional drivers road transport. Unpublished Doctoral Thesis. Rovira i Virgili University.

Salanova, M., Schaufeli, W. B., Llorens, S., Peiró, J. M., & Grau, R. (2000). From burnout to engagement: A new perspective?. Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 16, 117-134.

Schaufeli, W. B., Leiter, M. P., Maslach, C., & Jackson, S. E. (1996). Maslach Burnout Inventory - General Survey. In C. Mas1ach, S. E. Jackson, & M. P. Leiter (Eds.), The Maslach Burnout Inventory- Test Manual (3rd Ed.). Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.

Schumacker, R. E., & Lomax, R. G. (1996). A beginner’s guide to structural equation modeling. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Seibokaite, L., & Endriulaitiene, A. (2012). The role of personality traits, work motivation and organizational safety climate in risky occupational performance of professional drivers. Baltic Journal of Management, 7, 103-118.

Tamrin, S. B. M., Yokoyama, K., Aziz, N., & Maeda, S. (2014). Association of risk factors with musculoskeletal disorders among male commercial bus drivers in Malaysia. Human Factors and Ergonomics in Manufacturing & Service Industries, 24, 369-385.

Ulhôa, M. A., Marqueze, E. C., Kantermann, T., Skene, D., & Moreno, C. (2011). When does stress end? Evidence of a prolonged stress reaction in shiftworking truck drivers. Chronobiology International, 28, 810-818.

Wagstaff, A. S., & Lie, J. A. S. (2011). Shift and night work and long working hours-a systematic review of safety implications. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health, 173-185.

Winkleby, M. A., Ragland, D. R., Fisher, J. M., & Syme, S. L. (1988). Excess risk of sickness and disease in bus drivers: a review and synthesis of epidemiological studies. International Journal of Epidemiology, 17, 255-262.

How to Cite
Asens-Serra, J., Serrano-Fernández, M.-J., Boada-Cuerva, M., Boada-Grau, J., Macip-Simó, S., & Vigil-Colet, A. (2018). Health and Safety at Work in the Transport Industry (TRANS-12): Factorial Structure, Reliability and Validity. Anales De Psicología / Annals of Psychology, 35(1), 116-123.
Social and Organizational Psychology