Gifted and talented children: Heterogeneity and individual differences

  • Maria Pereira Da Costa Paris Descartes University
  • Todd I. Lubart Paris Descartes University
Keywords: Musical Talent, diversity within giftedness, Talent development.


The article tackles the topic that refers to giftedness beyond academic areas. Specifically, it focuses on musical talent. The work is differentiated into two parts. In the first part the authors expose the case of gifted students' heterogeneity. To do so, they present a previous research focused on the study of different patterns of response of gifted students to the WISC-IV. Such study illustrates the case of gifted students' diversity, showing that higher IQ students present higher inter-variability in their cognitive profiles. The second part of the article focuses on musical talent. In a first moment authors introduce the concept of musical talent and a literature review on the factors that influence that talent. From there, authors question if it could be possible to isolate the variables that differentiate the development of musical talent. To do so, Authors present a retrospective study based on interviews and questionnaires to parents and teacher of 42 non-gifted and 42 students identified as promising talent in music. The questionnaire assessed: Implication of parents, Motivation of the pupil, Work of the pupil and Contribution of the teacher. The authors are able to distinguish between developmental trends in the formation of musical talent, depending on children's age and styles on dealing with their musical assignments and work-load (experience music as a passion vs. as an obligation).


Download data is not yet available.


Alter, J. B. (1989). Creativity profile of university and conservatory music students. Creativity Research Journal, 2, 184 194.

Binet, A., & Simon, T. (1905/1916). New methods for the diagnosis of the intellectual level of subnormals (E. S. Kite, Trans.).In The development of intelligence in children. Vineland, NJ: Publications of the Training School at Vineland.

Binet, A., & Simon, T. (1908/1916).The development of intelligence in children (E. S. Kite, Trans.). In The development of intelligence in children. Vineland, NJ: Publications of the Training School at Vineland.

Brasseur, S., & Grégoire, J. (2010). L’intelligence émotionnelle-trait chez les adolescents à haut potentiel: spécificités et liens avec la réussite académique et les compétences sociales. Enfance, 1, 59-76.

Brouet, C. (2003). Les élèves en difficulté et l’échec dans les écoles de musique. Unpublished manuscript: Training Center for music teachers, Rhone-Alpes, France.

Coleman, L.J., & Cross, T.L. (2000). Socio-emotional development and the personal experience of giftedness. In Heller, K.A., Monks, F.J., Sternberg, R.J., Subotnik, R.F. (Ed.), International handbook of giftedness and talent (pp 203-2012), Elmsford, NY, US : Pergamon Press.

Courtinat, A., & De Leonardis, M. (2010). Contextes de scolarisation, expérience scolaire et estime de soi chez des collégien(nes) à haut potentiel. Enfance, 1, 99-110.

Freeman, J. (2000). Children’s talent in fine art and music – England. Roeper Review, 22, 98 101.

Gagné, F. (2000). Understanding the Complex choreography of talent development through DMGT-Based analysis. In Heller, K.A., Monks, F.J., Sternberg, R.J., Subotnik, R.F. (Ed.), International handbook of giftedness and talent (pp 67-79), Elmsford, NY, US: Pergamon Press.

Gagné, F. (2004). Transforming gifts into talents: the DMGT as a developmental theory. High Ability Studies, 15, 119-147.

Gagne, F. (2010). Motivation within the DMGT 2.0 framework. High Ability Studies, 21(2), 81 99.

Gardner, H. (1983). Frames of mind: The theory of multiple intelligences. New York: Basic Books.

Haroutounian, J. (2000). Perspectives of musical talent: A study of identification criteria and procedures. High Ability Studies, 11(2), 137 160.

Heller, K.A. (2004). Identification of gifted ant talented students. Psychology Science, 46, 302-323.Lautrey, J. (2004). Hauts potentiels et talents : la position actuelle du problème. Psychologie Française, 49, 219-232.

Howe, M.J.A. & Davidson, J.W. (2003). The early progress of able young musicians. In R.J. Sternberg & E.L. Grigorenko (Eds.), The psychology of abilities, competencies and expertise (p.186-212). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Lubart, T.I. & Jouffray, C. (2006). Concepts, définitions et théories. In Lubart (ed.) "Enfants exceptionnels : précocité intellectuelle, haut potentiel et talent" (pp 12-35). Paris: Editions Bréal.

Lubart, T. I. (2006). Enfants exceptionnels: Précocité intellectuelle, haut potentiel et talent. Paris: Editions Bréal.

Marland, S.P. (1972). Education of the gifted and talented, Report to the Congress of the United States.

Pereira Da Costa, M. (2010). La place du QI dans les théories de l’intelligence appliquées aux enfants à haut potentiel. In S. Tordjman (Ed.), Aider les enfants à haut potentiel en difficulté: Repérer et comprendre, évaluer et prendre en charge (pp. 69 86). Rennes: Presses Universitaires de Rennes,

Pereira Da Costa, M., Zenasni, F., Nicolas, S. & Lubart, T. (2013). Alfred Binet: A Creative Life in Measurement and Pedagogy. In Robinson, A. & Jolly, J. (Eds), A century of contributions to gifted education : Illuminating Lives, New York: Routledge, Taylor and Francis. pp 23-40.

Pereira-Fradin, M. (2006). Les différences individuelles chez les enfants à haut potentiel. In Lubart (ed.) Enfants exceptionnels : précocité intellectuelle, haut potentiel et talent. (pp 36-64). Paris: Editions Bréal.

Pereira-Fradin, M., & Dubois, A. (2007). Environmental effects on musical talent development. Gifted and Talented International, 22(2), 105 117.

Pereira-Fradin, M., Caroff, X., & Jacquet, A-Y. (2010). Le WISC-IV permet-il d’améliorer l’identification des enfants à haut potentiel?, Enfance, 1, 11-26.

Renzulli, J. S. (1986). The three-ring conception of giftedness: Aa developmental model for creative productivity. In R. J. Stenberg & J. E. Davidsa (Eds),Conceptions of giftedness (pp. 53 92). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press,

Saklofske, D. H., Weiss, L. G., Raiford, S. E. & Prifitera, A. (2006). Advanced interpretative issues with the WISC-IV, full scale IQ and general ability index scores. In L.G. Weiss et al. (eds), WISC-IV Advanced clinical interpretation (pp. 99-139). San Diego, CA: Elsevier Academic Press.

Sattler, J.M. (2001). Assessment of children: Cognitive applications (4th ed.). San Diego, CA: Author.

Silver, S.J., & Clampit, M.K., (1990). WISC-R profiles of high ability children :interpretation of verbal-performance discrepancies. Gifted Children Quaterly, 34(2), 145-156.

Sloboda, J. A., & Howe, M. J. A. (1991). Biographical precursors of musical excellence: An interview study. Psychology of Music, 19, 3 21.

Sosniak, L. A. (1990). The tortoise, the hare and the development of talent. In M. J. A. Howe (ed.) Encouraging the development of exceptional abilities and talents. Leicester: British Psychological Society.

Sternberg, R.J., (1985). Beyond IQ: a triarchic theory of human intelligence. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Subotnik, R. F. (2000). The Juilliard model for developing young adolescent performers: An educational prototype. In C. F. M. Van Lieshout & P. G. Heymans (Eds.),Developing talent across the life span (pp. 249 276). Philadelphia, PA: Psychology Press.

Terman, L.M. (1925). Mental and physical traits of a thousand gifted children. Standford, CA, Standford University Press.

Wechsler, D. (2005). Manuel d’administration et de cotation du WISC-IV. Paris : Editions du Centre de Psychologie Appliquée.

Weiss, L.G., Saklofske, D. H., Schwartz, D.M., Prifitera, A. & Courville, T. (2006). Advanced clinical interpretation of WISC-IV index scores. In L.G. Weiss et al. (eds), WISC-IV Advanced clinical interpretation (pp. 140-181). San Diego, CA: Elsevier Academic Press.

Winner, E., & Martino, G. (2000). Giftedness in non-academic domains: The case of visual arts and music. In K. A. Heller, F. J. Monks, R. J. Sternberg, & R. F. Subotnik (Eds), International handbook of giftedness and talent (2nd ed., pp. 95 110). Elmsford, NY: Pergamon Press.

How to Cite
Pereira Da Costa, M., & Lubart, T. I. (2016). Gifted and talented children: Heterogeneity and individual differences. Anales De Psicología / Annals of Psychology, 32(3), 662-671.
Monographic theme: High Ability (giftedness and talent)