Spanish Adaptation of the Working Alliance Inventory (WAI). Psychometric properties of the patient and therapist forms (WAI-P and WAI-T)
AbstractThe working alliance is one of the most widely studied constructs in psychotherapy process research. The purpose of our study was to adapt the patient and therapist forms of the Working Alliance Inventory (WAI-P and WAI-T) into Spanish. Both measurement instruments were translated into Spanish through a systematic translation process. The psychometric properties of the instruments were evaluated in both a pilot study and a clinical study involving Spanish outpatients with depressive disorders and their therapists. In the clinical study, patients completed the Spanish-language Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) prior to initiating therapy and after the third and tenth psychotherapy sessions. High average scores were obtained with the Spanish-language WAI-P and WAI-T. A large number of individual items correlated satisfactorily with the overall score for the corresponding subscale. Both measures demonstrated excellent reliability (internal consistency) and convergent validity. There were some limitations in the discriminant validity of the measures vs. measures of empathy. Regarding predictive validity, the overall WAI-P and the Task subscale of the WAI-T separately explained a moderate percentage of the variance in patient change in the BDI after the tenth psychotherapy session. These results were satisfactory and consistent with those obtained in studies using the English-language WAI.
American Psychiatric Association. (2002). Manual diagnóstico y estadístico de los trastornos mentales [Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders] (4.ª ed., text rev.). Barcelona, Spain: Masson.
Andrade-González, N. (2005). La alianza terapéutica [The therapeutic alliance]. Clínica y Salud, 16, 9-29.
Andrade-González, N. (2009, April). El papel del terapeuta en la alianza terapéutica [The role of the therapist in the therapeutic alliance]. Paper presented at UNED, Guadalajara, Spain.
Barrett-Lennard, G. T. (1978). The Relationship Inventory: Later developments and adaptations. JSAS: Catalog of Selected Documents in Psychology, 8(68), 1-55.
Beck, A. T., Rush, A. J., Shaw, B. F., & Emery, G. (1979). Cognitive therapy of depression. New York, NY: Guilford Press.
Beck, A. T., & Steer, R. A. (1993). Beck Depression Inventory: Manual. San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation.
Bordin, E. S. (1979). The generalizability of the psychoanalytic concept of the working alliance. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice, 16, 252-260.
Bordin, E. S. (1994). Theory and research on the therapeutic working alliance: New directions. In A. O. Horvath & L. S. Greenberg (Eds.), The working alliance: Theory, research and practice (pp. 13-37). New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons.
Corbella, S., Botella, L., Gómez, A. M., Herrero, O., & Pacheco, M. (2011). Características psicométricas de la versión española del Working Alliance Inventory-Short (WAI-S) [Psychometric properties of Spanish version of Working Alliance Inventory-Short (WAI-S)]. Anales de Psicología, 27, 298-301.
Hanson, W. E., Curry, K. T., & Bandalos, D. L. (2002). Reliability generalization of Working Alliance Inventory scale scores. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 62, 659-673. Doi:10.1177/0013164402062004008
Hill, C. E., & Lambert, M. J. (2004). Methodological issues in studying psychotherapy processes and outcomes. In M. J. Lambert (Ed.), Bergin & Garfield’s handbook of psychotherapy and behavior change (5th ed., pp. 84-135). New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons.
Horvath, A. O. (1981). An exploratory study of the working alliance: Its measurement and relationship to therapy outcome (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.
Horvath, A. O., & Greenberg, L. S. (1986). The development of the Working Alliance Inventory. In L. S. Greenberg & W. M. Pinsof (Eds.), The psychotherapeutic process: A research handbook (pp. 529-556). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
Horvath, A. O., & Greenberg, L. S. (1989). Development and validation of the Working Alliance Inventory. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 36, 223-233.
Horvath, A. O. (1994). Empirical validation of Bordin’s pantheoretical model of the alliance: The Working Alliance Inventory perspec-tive. In A. O. Horvath & L. S. Greenberg (Eds.), The working alliance: Theory, research and practice (pp. 109-128). New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons.
Horvath, A. O., Del Re, A. C., Flückiger, C., & Symonds, D. (2011). Alli-ance in individual psychotherapy. In J. C. Norcross (Ed.), Psychotherapy relationships that work: Evidence-based responsiveness (pp. 25-69). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
LaCrosse, M. B. (1980). Perceived counselor social influence and counseling outcomes: Validity of the Counselor Rating Form. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 27, 320-327.
LaCrosse, M. B., & Barak, A. (1976). Differential perception of counselor behavior. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 23, 170-172.
Luborsky, L. (1976). Helping alliances in psychotherapy: The groundwork for a study of their relationship to its outcome. In J. L. Claghorn (Ed.), Successful psychotherapy (pp. 92-116). New York, NY: Brunner/Mazel.
Luborsky, L., Barber, J. P., Siqueland, L., Johnson, S., Najavits, L. M., Frank, A., & Daley, D. (1996). The Revised Helping Alliance Ques-tionnaire (HAq-II): Psychometric properties. The Journal of Psycho-therapy Practice and Research, 5, 260-271.
Muñiz, J. (2005). Utilización de los tests [Use of tests]. In J. Muñiz, A. M. Fidalgo, E. García-Cueto, R. Martínez, & R. Moreno, Análisis de los ítems [Item Analysis] (pp. 133-172). Madrid, Spain: La Muralla.
Safran, J. D., & Muran, J. C. (2000). Negotiating the therapeutic alliance: A relational treatment guide. New York, NY: Guilford Press.
Sanz, J., & Vázquez, C. (1998). Fiabilidad, validez y datos normativos del Inventario para la Depresión de Beck [Reliability, validity, and normative data of the Beck Depression Inventory]. Psicothema, 10, 303-318.
Tryon, G. S., Blackwell, S. C., & Hammel, E. F. (2008). The magnitude of client and therapist working alliance ratings. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 45, 546-551. Doi:10.1037/a0014338
Vázquez, C., & Sanz, J. (1997). Fiabilidad y valores normativos de la versión española del Inventario para la Depresión de Beck de 1978 [Reliability and normative data of the Spanish version of 1978 Beck's Depression Inventory]. Clínica y Salud, 8, 403-422.
Vázquez, C., & Sanz, J. (1999). Fiabilidad y validez de la versión española del Inventario para la Depresión de Beck de 1978 en pacientes con trastornos psicológicos [Reliability and validity of the Spanish version of Beck’s Depression Inventory (1978) in patients with psychological disorders]. Clínica y Salud, 10, 59-81.
Waizmann, V., & Roussos, A. (2011). Adaptación del Inventario de Alianza de Trabajo en su versión observador: WAI-O-A [Adaptation of the Working Alliance Inventory in its Observer Form: WAI-O-A]. Anuario de Investigaciones, 18, 95-104.
The works published in this journal are subject to the following terms:
1. The Publications Service of the University of Murcia (the publisher) retains the property rights (copyright) of published works, and encourages and enables the reuse of the same under the license specified in paragraph 2.
2. The works are published in the online edition of the journal under a Creative Commons Reconocimiento-CompartirIgual 4.0 (legal text). You can copy, use, distribute, transmit and publicly display, provided that: i) you cite the author and the original source of publication (journal, editorial and URL of the work), ii) are not used for commercial purposes, iii ) mentions the existence and specifications of this license.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
3. Conditions of self-archiving. Is allowed and encouraged the authors to disseminate electronically pre-print versions (version before being evaluated and sent to the journal) and / or post-print (version reviewed and accepted for publication) of their works before publication, as it encourages its earliest circulation and diffusion and thus a possible increase in its citation and scope between the academic community. RoMEO Color: Green.