Teaching personal and social responsibility after school: A systematic review

Palabras clave: modelo de responsabilidad, actividad física, TPSR Alliance, extracurricular


Background: Teaching Personal and Social Responsibility (TPSR) has been studied and implemented through physical activity in different backgrounds for over three decades. However, there is no systematized review in the literature concerning the after-school context.

Aim: Conducting a systematic review of literature on after-school interventions based on the TPSR model.

Methods: This study was driven by the following research questions: Which were the conclusions regarding the implementation of TPSR in after-school settings? Which research methodologies have been used to assess TPSR in after-school time settings? Which results related to TPSR were reported in after-school time settings? Cochrane protocol guidelines were followed. Papers were selected by two independent researchers, with Cohen’s Kappa value of 81%.

Results and discussion: Twenty-seven papers were selected, thirteen of which were reported with high scores. Most interventions were conducted in the USA on community-based after-school programs, lasting more than nine sessions, and led by school staff who prepared physical activities for youngsters from disadvantaged communities. Most of the reported studies resorted to qualitative methodologies. Some gaps were detected, such as lack of systematization of methods, lack of validity and reliability. Personal and social benefits were found. Other results were grouped into leadership, staff-youngsters relationship, values, transference, and impact on staff lives.

We recommend future studies in the after-school context extend to extend to other countries, with more detailed descriptions of the specific used methods.


La descarga de datos todavía no está disponible.

Biografía del autor/a

Artur Pereira, Faculty of Sport Sciences and Physical Education of Coimbra, Portugal.


Baptista, C., Bessa, C., Pereira, S., Corte-Real, N., Regueiras, L., & Maia, J. (2016). Adaptação de um programa da responsabilidade pessoal e social na formação de professores: Um estudo piloto em Timor-Leste. VERITAS, 4(2), 5-16.

Beale, A. (2012). Fulfilling the promise of making a difference: Creating guards of life with TPSR. International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education(6), 249-266.

Bean, C., & Forneris, T. (2015). Using a time-series analysis to evaluate a female youth-driven physical activity-based life skills program based on the teaching personal and social responsibility model. Ágora para la EF y el Deporte, 12(2), 94-114.

Bean, C., Kendellen, K., & Forneris, T. (2016). Moving beyond the gym exploring life skill transfer within a female physical activity based life skills program. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 1-17. doi:10.1080/10413200.2015.1124155

Belando, N., Ferriz-Morell, R., & Moreno-Murcia, J. (2012). Propuesta de un modelo para la mejora personal y social a través de la promoción de la responsabilidad en la actividad físico-deportiva. Revista Internacional de Ciencias del Deporte, 8(29), 202-222. doi:10.5232/ricyde2012.02902

Blanco, P. (2015). Percepción del alumnado de formación profesional sobre los efectos de un programa de desarrollo positivo (modelo de responsabilidad de Hellison). Journal of Sport and Health Research, 7(2), 113-126. doi:10.4321/s1578-84232015000200020

Buchanan, A. (2001). Contextual challenges to teaching responsibility in a sports camp. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education (20), 155-171.

Buckle, M., & Walsh, D. (2013). Teaching responsibility to gang-affiliated youths. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 84(2), 53-58. doi:10.1080/07303084.2013.757193

Caballero-Blanco, P., Delgado-Noguera, M., & Escartí, A. (2013). Analysis of teaching personal and social responsibility model-based programmes applied in USA and Spain. Journal of Human Sport & Exercise, 8(2), 427-441. doi:10.4100/jhse.2012.82.10

Camerino, O., Valero-Valenzuela, A., Prat, Q., Manzano Sanchez, D., & Castaner, M. (2019). Optimizing Education: A Mixed Methods Approach Oriented to Teaching Personal and Social Responsibility (TPSR). Frontiers in Psychology, 10, 1439.

Casey, A. (2014). Models-based practice: great white hope or white elephant? Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, 19(1), 18-34. doi:10.1080/17408989.2012.726977

Catalano, R., Berglund, M., Ryan, J., Lonczak, H., & Hawkins, J. (2004). Positive youth development in the United States: Research findings on evaluations of positive youth development programs. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 591, 98–124. doi:10.1177/0002716203260102

Coulson, C., Irwin, C., & Wright, P. (2012). Applting Hellison's responsibility model in a youth residential treatment facility: a practial inquiry project. Ágora para la EF y el Deporte, 1(14), 38-54.

Díaz, J., Manzano, J., Martín, M., Catalán, J., & Palacios, A. (2018). Formación en valores desde el Área de Psicología del Deporte del Sevilla F.C. S.A.D. Revista de Psicología Aplicada al Deporte y el Ejercicio Físico, 3(1), 1-8. doi:10.5093/rpadef2018a5

Dunn, R., Hemphill, M., & Beaudoin, S. (2006). A community of practice that supported the transition from doctoral student to faculty member. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 85(5), 27-30. doi:10.1080/07303084.2016.1157391

Escartí, A., Gutiérrez, M., Pascual, C., & Wright, P. (2013). Observación de las estrategias que emplean los profesores de educación física para enseñar responsabilidad personal y social. Revista de Psicología del Deporte, 22(1), 159-166. doi:10.5232/ricyde2011.02203

Escartí, A., Wright, P., Pascual, C., & Gutiérrez, M. (2015). Tool for assessing responsibility-based education (TARE) 2.0: instrument revisions, inter-rater reliability, and correlations between observed teaching strategies and student behaviors. Universal Journal of Psychology, 3(2), 55-63. doi:10.13189/ujp.2015.030205

EndNote X7, 2014. Thompson Reuters.

Esperança, J., Regueiras, M., Brustad, R., & Fonseca, A. (2013). Um olhar sobre o desenvolvimento positivo dos jovens através do desporto. Revista de Psicología del Deporte, 22(2), 481 - 487. doi:10.5628/rpcd.17.01.47

Fernández-Ríos, L., & Buela-Casal, G. (2009). Standards for the preparation and writing of psychology review article. International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology, 9(2), 329-344.

Forneris, T., Whitley, M., & Barker, B. (2013). The Reality of Implementing community based sport and physical activity programs to enhance the development of underserved youth: Challenges and potential strategies. Quest, 65(3), 313-331. doi:10.1080/00336297.2013.773527

Gorard, S., & Makopoulou, K. (2012). Is mixed methods the natural approach to research? In K. Armour & D. Macdonald (Eds.), Research methods in physical education and youth sport (pp. 106-119). London and New York: Routledge.

Gordon, B., & Doyle, S. (2015). Teaching personal and social responsibility and transfer of learning: opportunities and challenges for instructors and coaches. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 34(1), 152-161. doi:10.1123/jtpe.2013-0184

Hammond-Diedrich, K., & Walsh, D. (2006). Empowering youth through a responsibility-based cross-age instructor program: An investigation into impact and possibilities. The Physical Educator, 63(3).

Hayden, L., Baltzell, A., Kilty, K., & McCarthy, J. (2012). Developing responsibility using physical activity: A case study of team support. Ágora para la EF y el Deporte, 14(2264-281).

Hellison, D. (1985). Goals and strategies for physical education. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

Hellison, D. (1995). Teaching responsibility through physical activity (1 ed.). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

Hellison, D. (2003). Teaching responsibility through physical activity (2 ed.). University of Illinois at Chicago: Human Kinetics.

Hellison, D. (2011). Teaching Personal and Social Responsibility Trough Physical Activity (3 ed.). USA: Human Kinetics.

Hellison, D., & Martinek, T. (2006). Social and Individual responsibility programs. In D. Kirk, M. O'Sullivan, & D. Macdonald (Eds.), Handbook of research in physical education (pp. 610-626). London: Sage.

Hellison, D., & Walsh, D. (2002). Responsibility-based youth programs evaluation: Investigating the investigations. Quest (54), 292-307.

Hellison, D., & Wright, P. (2003). Retention in an Urban Extended Day Program: A Process-Based Assessment. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 22(4), 369-381. doi:10.1123/jtpe.22.4.369

Higgins, J. P., & Green, S. (Eds.). (2011). Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions (Version 5.1.0 ed.): www.handbook.cochrane.org.

Landis J., & Koch G. (1977). The measurement of observer agreement for categorical data. Biometrics, 33, 159-174.

Lee, O., & Choi, E. (2015). The influence of professional development on instructors’ implementation of the teaching personal and social responsibility model. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 34(4), 603-625. doi:10.1123/jtpe.2013-0223

Lee, O., & Martinek, T. (2009). Navigating two cultures: An investigation of cultures of a responsibility-based physical activity program and school. Research Quarterly for Exercise & Sport, 80, 230-240. doi:10.1080/02701367.2009.10599557

Lee, O., & Martinek, T. (2012). Factors influencing transfer of responsibility-based physical activity program goals into classrooms. The Physical Educator(69), 188-207.

Martinek, T. (2009). Project effort: Serving the underserved populations through sport. Kinesiology Today, 2(2), 4-8.

Martinek, T. (2016). Project effort: Creating responsible leaders through values-based learning. Active, Helthy Magazine.

Martinek, T., & Schilling, T. (2003). Developing Compassionate Leadership in Underserved Youths. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 74(5), 33-39. doi:10.1080/07303084.2003.10608483

Martinek, T., Schilling, T., & Hellison, D. (2006). The development of compassionate and caring leadership among adolescents. Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, 11(2), 141-157.

Martinek, T., Schilling, T., & Johnson, D. (2001). Transferring personal and social responsibility of undersevered youth to the classroom. The Urban Review, 33(1).

Metzler, M. (2005). Instructional models for physical education. Boston: MA: Allyn &Bacon.

Moher, D., Schulz, K., and Altman, D. (2001). The CONSORT statement: Revised recommendations for improving the quality of reports of parallel-group randomised trials. Lancet 357(9263): 1191–1194

Newton, M., Watson, D., Kim, M.-S., & Beacham, A. (2006). Understanding motivation of underserved youth in physical activity settings. Youth & Society, 37(3), 348-371. doi:10.1177/0044118X05278964

Pan, Y.-H., & Keh, N.-C. (2014). Teaching responsibility through physical education: Research and applications in Taiwan. Japanese Journal of Sport Education Studies, 34(1), 63-69.

Petitpas, A., Cornelius, A., Raalte, J. V., & Jones, T. (2005). A Framework for planning youth sport programs that foster psychosocial development. Human Kinetics Publishers, (19), 63-80.

Pozo, P., Grao-Cruces, A., & Pérez-Ordás, R. (2016). Teaching personal and social responsibility model-based programmes in physical education. European Physical Education Review, 1-20. doi:10.1177/1356336x16664749

Prieto, J., Delgado, F., Caro, L. & Preciado, A. (2015). Desarrollo de los componentes sociales de la deportividad en futbolistas alevines. Cuadernos de Psicología del Deporte, 15(2), 113-124. doi:10.4321/S1578-84232015000200013

Schilling, T. (2001). An investigation of commitment among participants in an extended day physical activity program. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 72(4), 355-365. doi:10.1080/02701367.2001.10608972

Schilling, T. (2007). An Examination of Resilience Processes in Context: The Case of Tasha. The Urban Review, 40(3), 296-316. doi:10.1007/s11256-007-0080-8

Shea, B., Grimshaw, J., Wells, G., Boers, M., Andersson, N., Hamel, C., . . . Bouter, L. (2007). Development of AMSTAR: a measurement tool to assess the methodological quality of systematic reviews. BMC Med Res Methodol, 7, 10. doi:10.1186/1471-2288-7-10

Siegel S, & Castellan N. (1988). Nonparametric statistic for the behavioral sciences (2 ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.

Vandenbroucke, J., Elm, E., Altman, D., Gøtzsche, P., Mulrow, C., Pocock, S., . . . Egger, M. (2007). Strengthening the reporting of observational studies in epidemiology (STROBE): Explanation and elaboration. Annals of Internal Medicine, 147(6), 163-194.

Walsh, D. (2007). Supporting youth development outcomes: An evaluation of a responsibility model-based program Physical Educator, 64(1), 48-56.

Walsh, D. (2008). Helping youth in underserved communities envision possible futures: An extension of the teaching personal and social responsibility model. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 79(2), 209-221. doi:10.1080/02701367.2008.10599484

Walsh, D., Veri, M., & Willard, J. (2015). Kinesiology career club: Undergraduate student mentors’ perspectives on a physical activity–based teaching personal and social responsibility program. The Physical Educator, 72, 317-339.

Walsh, D., Ozaeta, J., & Wright, P. (2010). Transference of responsibility model goals to the school environment: exploring the impact of a coaching club program. Physical Education & Sport Pedagogy, 15(1), 15-28. doi:10.1080/17408980802401252

Walsh, D., & Wright, P. (2016). The TPSR Alliance a community of practice for teaching research and service. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 87(5), 35-38. doi:10.1080/07303084.2016.1157394

Whitley, M. (2011). The Ikhaya sport programs in the Kayamandi township. Ágora, 14(1), 115-136.

Whitley, M., & Gould, D. (2011). Psychosocial Development in Refugee Children and Youth through the Personal–Social Responsibility Model. Journal of Sport Psychology in Action, 1(3), 118-138. doi:10.1080/21520704.2010.534546

Wright, E., Whitley, M., & Sabolboro, G. (2012). Conducting a TPSR program for an underserved girl's summer camp. Ágora para la EF y el Deporte, 14(1), 5-24.

Wright, P. (2012). Offering a TPSR physical activity club to adolescent boys labeled "at risk" in partnership with a community-based youth serving program. Ágora para la EF y el Deporte, 14(2), 94-114.

Wright, P., Dyson, B., & Moten, T. (2012). Exploring the individualized experiences of participants in a responsibility-based youth development program. Ágora para la EF y el Deporte, 2(14), 248-263.

Wright, P., Jacobs, J., Ressler, J., & Jung, J. (2016). Teaching for transformative educational experience in a sport for development program. Sport, Education and Society, 21(4), 531-548. doi:10.1080/13573322.2016.1142433

Wright, P., White, K., & Gaebier-Spira, D. (2004). Exploring the relevance of the personal and social responsibility model in adapted physical activity: A collective case study. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 23(1), 71-87. doi:10.1123/jtpe.23.1.71

Cómo citar
Baptista, C., Corte-Real, N., Regueiras, L., Seo, G., Hemphill, M., Pereira, A., Dias, C., Martinek, T., & Fonseca, A. (2020). Teaching personal and social responsibility after school: A systematic review. Cuadernos De Psicología Del Deporte, 20(2), 1-25. https://doi.org/10.6018/cpd.346851
Psicología del Deporte