Análisis del comportamiento alimentario y sus factores psicológicos en población universitaria no obesa

Autores/as

  • José Luis López Morales Universidad de Murcia
DOI: https://doi.org/10.6018/analesps.34.1.294341
Palabras clave: Comportamiento alimentario, factores psicológicos, comer emocional, restricción de alimentos

Resumen

En el comportamiento alimentario de la población obesa pueden influir diversos factores psicológicos como, por ejemplo, la restricción alimentaria, la falta de control o el comer emocional. Aunque en la mayoría de las ocasiones estas variables se han estudiado en la población obesa, este estudio pretende evaluar la relación de estos factores con el comportamiento alimentario de la población no obesa y relacionar este comportamiento con el Síndrome de Edorexia. Se aplica una batería de test compuesta por el Cuestionario del Síndrome de Edorexia, el Cuestionario de Personalidad BFQ y el Cuestionario de Respuesta de afrontamiento CRI-A a una muestra de 88 alumnos de la Universidad de Murcia. Nuestros resultados muestran como el Síndrome de Edorexia se relaciona con una disminución de estabilidad emocional, control emocional y reevaluación positiva, así como un aumento de la aceptación y resignación. Además, los individuos con Síndrome de Edorexia se relacionan con la realización de dietas, privación de alimentos, realización de actividad física y el consumo sin necesidad. Estos resultados se explican mediante la teoría de las cinco vías (Macht, 2008) que relaciona la falta de habilidades para gestionar las emociones con el abuso incontrolable de alimentos. 

Descargas

Los datos de descargas todavía no están disponibles.

Citas

Balantekin, K. N. & Roemmich, J. N. (2012). Children’s coping after psychological stress. Choices among food, physical activity, and television. Appetite, 59(2), 298-304. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appet.2012.05.016

Beiseigel, J. M. & Nickols-Richardson, S. M. (2004). Cognitive eating restraint scores are associated with body fatness but not with other measures of dieting in women. Appetite, 43(1), 47-53. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appet.2004.02.002

Benard, M., Camilleri, G. M., Etile, F., Mejean, C., Bellisle, F., Reach, G., … Peneau, S. (2017). Association between Impulsivity and Weight Status in a General Population. Nutrients, 9(3), 217. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9030217

Blum, K., Liu, Y., Shriner, R. & Gold, M. S. (2011). Reward circuitry dopaminergic activation regulates food and drug craving behavior. Current Pharmaceutical Design, 17(12), 1158-1167.

Boersma, G. J., Benthem, L., van Dijk, G & Scheurink, A. J. (2011). Individual variation in the (patho)physiology of energy balance. Physiology & Behavior, 103(1), 89-97. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physbeh.2010.12.026

Boersma, G. J., Scheurink, A. J., Wielinga, P. Y., Steimer, T. J & Benthem, L. (2009). The passive coping Roman Low Avoidance rat, a non-obese rat model for insulin resistance. Physiology & Behavior, 97(3-4), 353-358. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physbeh.2009.03.005

Bollen, E & Wojciechowski, F. L. (2004). Anorexia nervosa subtypes and the big five personality factors. European Eating Disorders Review, 12(2), 117-121. https://doi.org/10.1002/er6v.551

Boon, B., Stroebe, W., Schut, H & Jansen, A. (1998). Food for thought: Cognitive regulation of food intake. British Journal of Health Psychology, 3(1), 27-40. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8287.1998.tb00553.x

Boschi, V., Iorio, D., Margiotta, N., D’Orsi, P & Falconi, C. (2001). The three-factor eating questionnaire in the evaluation of eating behaviour in subjects seeking participation in a dietotherapy programme. Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism, 45(2), 72-77. https://doi.org/46709

Bulik, C. M., Sullivan, P. F., Tozzi, F., Furberg, H., Lichtenstein, P & Pedersen, N. L. (2006). Prevalence, heritability, and prospective risk factors for anorexia nervosa. Archives of General Psychiatry, 63(3), 305-312. https://doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.63.3.305

Caprara, G. V., Barbaranelli, C., Borgogni, L & Perugini, M. (1993). The «big five questionnaire»: A new questionnaire to assess the five factor model. Personality and Individual Differences, 15(3), 281-288. https://doi.org/10.1016/0191-8869(93)90218-R

Heaven, P. C., Mulligan, K., Merrilees, R., Woods, T & Fairooz, Y. (2001). Neuroticism and conscientiousness as predictors of emotional, external, and restrained eating behaviors. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 30(2), 161-166. https://doi.org/10.1002/eat.1068

Herman, C. P. & Mack, D. (1975). Restrained and unrestrained eating1. Journal of Personality, 43(4), 647-660. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6494.1975.tb00727.x

Herman, C. P. & Polivy, J. (1984). A boundary model for the regulation of eating. Research Publications - Association for Research in Nervous and Mental Disease, 62, 141-156.

Keller, C. & Siegrist, M. (2015). Does personality influence eating styles and food choices? Direct and indirect effects. Appetite, 84, 128-138. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appet.2014.10.003

Koff, E. & Sangani, P. (1997). Effects of coping style and negative body image on eating disturbance. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 22(1), 51-56.

Lattimore, P. & Maxwell, L. (2004). Cognitive load, stress, and disinhibited eating. Eating Behaviors, 5(4), 315-324. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eatbeh.2004.04.009

Lauzon-Guillain, B. , Basdevant, A., Romon, M., Karlsson, J., Borys, J.-M., Charles, M. A. & Group, T. F. S. (2006). Is restrained eating a risk factor for weight gain in a general population? The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 83(1), 132-138.

Lawson, O. J., Williamson, D. A., Champagne, C. M., DeLany, J. P., Brooks, E. R., Howat, P. M., … Ryan, D. H. (1995). The association of body weight, dietary intake, and energy expenditure with dietary restraint and disinhibition. Obesity Research, 3(2), 153-161.

Lee, J. M., Greening, L. & Stoppelbein, L. (2007). The moderating effect of avoidant coping on restrained eaters’ risk for disinhibited eating: Implications for dietary relapse prevention. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 45(10), 2334-2348. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2007.03.010

Leigh Gibson, E. & Green, M. W. (2002). Nutritional influences on cognitive function: mechanisms of susceptibility. Nutrition Research Reviews, 15(1), 169-206. https://doi.org/10.1079/NRR200131

Lindroos, A. K., Lissner, L., Mathiassen, M. E., Karlsson, J., Sullivan, M., Bengtsson, C. & Sjöström, L. (1997). Dietary intake in relation to restrained eating, disinhibition, and hunger in obese and nonobese Swedish women. Obesity Research, 5(3), 175-182.

Lluch, A., Herbeth, B., Méjean, L. & Siest, G. (2000). Dietary intakes, eating style and overweight in the Stanislas Family Study. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity, 24(11), 1493-1499.

López-Morales, J. L. & Garcés de los Fayos, E. J. (2012). Hacia una integración comprensiva de la obesidad desde una perspectiva multidisciplinar. Nutrición Hospitalaria, 27(6), 1810-1816. https://doi.org/10.3305/nh.2012.27.6.5882

López-Morales, J. L. & Garcés de los Fayos, E. J. (2014). Síndrome de Edorexia: evaluación y diagnóstico. Salud Pública de México, 56(3), 242-243.

Macht, M. (2008). How emotions affect eating: A five-way model. Appetite, 50(1), 1-11. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appet.2007.07.002

Macht, M. & Mueller, J. (2007). Immediate effects of chocolate on experimentally induced mood states. Appetite, 49(3), 667-674. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appet.2007.05.004

MacLaren, V. V. & Best, L. A. (2009). Female students’ disordered eating and the big five personality facets. Eating Behaviors, 10(3), 192-195. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eatbeh.2009.04.001

Meule, A. (2011). How Prevalent is Food Addiction?. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 2. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2011.00061

Moos, R. H. (1993). Coping Responses Inventary. CRI-Adult form. Professional Manual. Odesaa: PAR, Inc.

Mueller, A., Claes, L., Mitchell, J. E., Wonderlich, S. A., Crosby, R. D. & de Zwaan, M. (2010). Personality prototypes in individuals with compulsive buying based on the Big Five Model. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 48(9), 930-935. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2010.05.020

Pelchat, M. L. (2009). Food Addiction in Humans. The Journal of Nutrition, jn.108.097816. https://doi.org/10.3945/jn.108.097816

Schachter, S., Goldman, R. & Gordon, A. (1968). Effects of fear, food deprivation, and obesity on eating. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 10(2), 91-97.

Stoeckel, L. E., Birch, L. L., Heatherton, T., Mann, T., Hunter, C., Czajkowski, S., … Savage, C. R. (2017). Psychological and Neural Contributions to Appetite Self-Regulation. Obesity, 25, S17-S25. https://doi.org/10.1002/oby.21789

Volkow, N. D., Wang, G.-J., Telang, F., Fowler, J. S., Thanos, P. K., Logan, J., … Pradhan, K. (2008). Low dopamine striatal D2 receptors are associated with prefrontal metabolism in obese subjects: Possible contributing factors. Neuroimage, 42(4), 1537-1543. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2008.06.002

Wallis, D. J. & Hetherington, M. M. (2004). Stress and eating: the effects of ego-threat and cognitive demand on food intake in restrained and emotional eaters. Appetite, 43(1), 39-46. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appet.2004.02.001

Publicado
15-12-2017
Cómo citar
López Morales, J. L. (2017). Análisis del comportamiento alimentario y sus factores psicológicos en población universitaria no obesa. Anales De Psicología / Annals of Psychology, 34(1), 1-6. https://doi.org/10.6018/analesps.34.1.294341
Número
Sección
Psicología clínica y de la salud