El pequeño impacto del haqueo de resultados marginalmente significativos sobre la estimación meta-analítica del tamaño del efecto

Autores/as

  • Juan Botella Ausina Universidad Autónoma de Madrid
  • Manuel Suero Autonomous Unoversity of madrid
  • Juan I. Durán
  • Desirée Blazquez
DOI: https://doi.org/10.6018/analesps.433051
Palabras clave: p-hacking, Tamaño del efecto, Meta-análisis

Resumen

La etiqueta p-hacking (pH) se refiere a un conjunto de prácticas oportunistas destinadas a hacer que sean significativos algunos valores p que deberían ser no significativos. Algunos han argumentado que debemos prevenir y luchar contra el pH por varias razones, especialmente debido a sus posibles efectos nocivos en la evaluación de los resultados de la investigación primaria y su síntesis meta-analítica. Nos focalizamos aquí en el efecto de un tipo específico de pH, centrado en estudios marginalmente significativos, en la estimación combinada del tamaño del efecto en el meta-análisis. Queremos saber cuánto deberíamos preocuparnos por su efecto de sesgo al evaluar los resultados de un meta-análisis. Hemos calculado el sesgo en una variedad de situaciones que parecen realistas en términos de prevalencia y de la definición operativa del pH. Los resultados muestran que en la mayoría de las situaciones analizadas el sesgo es inferior a una centésima (± 0.01), en términos de d o r. Para alcanzar un nivel de sesgo de cinco centésimas (± 0.05), tendría que haber una presencia masiva de este tipo de pH, lo que parece poco realista. Hay muchas buenas razones para luchar contra el pH, pero nuestra conclusión principal es que entre esas razones no se incluye que tenga un gran impacto en la estimación meta-analítica del tamaño del efecto.

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Biografía del autor/a

Juan Botella Ausina, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid

Facultad de Psicologia

Universidad Autonoma de Madrid

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Publicado
01-01-2021
Cómo citar
Botella, J., Suero, M., Durán , J. I., & Blazquez, D. (2021). El pequeño impacto del haqueo de resultados marginalmente significativos sobre la estimación meta-analítica del tamaño del efecto. Anales de Psicología / Annals of Psychology, 37(1), 178–187. https://doi.org/10.6018/analesps.433051
Número
Sección
Metodología de las ciencias del comportamiento