Adaptación y validación de la escala de liderazgo MLQ-5X al contexto educativo español

Autores/as

DOI: https://doi.org/10.6018/analesps.425351
Palabras clave: Validación, Características psicométricas, Liderazgo transformacional, Educación, Adolescentes

Resumen

Desde la teoría del liderazgo transformacional, este estudio tenía como objetivo analizar las propiedades psicométricas de una versión adaptada al ámbito educativo del Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ-5X). Un total de 1551 estudiantes españoles (M = 15,47 años ± 0,72; 679 chicos y 872 chicas) de 31 centros de enseñanza secundaria participaron en el estudio. El análisis factorial confirmatorio de la estructura inicial de nueve factores de la escala determinó la necesidad de eliminar dos ítems del factor dirección por excepción pasiva, agrupando en un solo factor el liderazgo pasivo. En un segundo modelo de ocho factores, se hallaron altas correlaciones entre los factores del liderazgo transformacional, señalando la necesidad de establecer un factor de primer orden. Finalmente, se testó un tercer modelo que obtuvo valores adecuados de validez y fiabilidad, que estaba compuesto por 34 ítems distribuidos en 4 factores principales (liderazgo transformacional, recompensa contingente, dirección por excepción activa y liderazgo pasivo) y 5 factores secundarios para el liderazgo transformacional (influencia idealizada conducta, influencia idealizada atribuida, motivación inspiracional, estimulación intelectual y consideración individualizada. Por tanto, la versión española del MLQ-5X en el ámbito educativo puede ser utilizada para evaluar el liderazgo transformacional de los docentes desde la percepción del alumnado.

Descargas

Los datos de descargas todavía no están disponibles.

Citas

Allen, N., Grigsby, B., y Peters, M. L. (2015). Does leadership matter? Examining the relationship among transformational leadership, school climate, and student achievement. International Journal of Educational Leadership Preparation, 10, 1–22.

Álvarez, O., Lila, M., Tomás, I., y Castillo, I. (2014). Transformational leadership in the local police in Spain: A leader-follower distance approach. The Spanish Journal of Psychology, 17, 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1017/sjp.2014.44

Álvarez, O., Tomás, I., Estevan, I., Molina-García, J., Queralt, A., y Castillo, I. (2018). Assessing teacher leadership in physical education: the Spanish version of the Transformational Teaching Questionnaire. Anales de Psicología, 34, 405–411. https://doi.org/10.6018/analesps.34.2.291711

Anderson, M. H., y Sun, P. Y. (2017). Reviewing leadership styles: Overlaps and the need for a new ‘full‐range’ theory. International Journal of Management Reviews, 19, 76–96. https://doi.org/10.1111/ijmr.12082

Antonakis, J., Avolio, B. J., y Sivasubramaniam, N. (2003). Context and leadership: An examination of the nine-factor full-range leadership theory using the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire. The Leadership Quarterly, 14, 261–295. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1048-9843(03)00030-4

Atmojo, M. (2015). The influence of transformational leadership on job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and employee performance. International Research Journal of Business Studies, 5, 113–128. https://doi.org/10.21632/irjbs.5.2.113-128

Avalos, B. (2011). Teacher professional development in teaching and teacher education over ten years. Teaching and Teacher Education, 27, 10–20. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2010.08.007

Avolio, B. J., Bass, B. M., y Jung, D. I. (1999). Re‐examining the components of transformational and transactional leadership using the Multifactor Leadership. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 72, 441–462. https://doi.org/10.1348/096317999166789

Balwant, P. T. (2016). Transformational instructor-leadership in higher education teaching: A Meta-analytic review and research agenda. Journal of Leadership Studies, 9, 20–42. https://doi.org/10.1002/jls.21423

Balwant, P. T., Birdi, K., Stephan, U., y Topakas, A. (2019). Transformational instructor-leadership and academic performance: a moderated mediation model of student engagement and structural distance. Journal of Further and Higher Education, 43, 884–900. https://doi.org/10.1080/0309877X.2017.1420149

Bass, B. M. (1995). Theory of transformational leadership redux. The Leadership Quarterly, 6, 463–478. https://doi.org/10.1016/1048-9843(95)90021-7

Bass, B. M., y Avolio, B.J. (1990). Transformational leadership development: Manual for the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire. Palo Alto: Consulting Psychologists Press Inc.

Bass, B. M., y Avolio, B. J. (1997). Revised manual for the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire. Palo Alto: Mind Garden.

Bass, B. M., Avolio, B. J., Jung, D. I., y Berson, Y. (2003). Predicting unit performance by assessing transformational and transactional leadership. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88, 207–218. https://psycnet.apa.org/doi/10.1037/0021-9010.88.2.207

Bass, B. M., y Bass, R. (2009). The Bass handbook of leadership: Theory, research, and managerial applications. New York, NY: Free Press.

Bass, B. M., y Riggio, R. E. (2005). Transformational Leadership. London, UK: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Bass, B. M., y Riggio, R. E. (2006). Transformational Leadership (2nd ed.). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. Press.

Bean, C., Harlow, M., y Kendellen, K. (2017). Strategies for fostering basic psychological needs support in high quality youth leadership programs. Evaluation and Program Planning, 61, 76–85. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.evalprogplan.2016.12.003

Beauchamp, M. R., Barling, J., Li, Z., Morton, K. L., Keith, S. E., y Zumbo, B. D. (2010). Development and psychometric properties of the Transformational Teaching Questionnaire. Journal of Health Psychology, 15, 1123–1134. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F1359105310364175

Beauchamp, M. R., Barling, J., y Morton, K. L. (2011). Transformational teaching and adolescent self-determined motivation, self-efficacy, and intentions to engage in leisure time physical activity: A randomised controlled pilot trial. Applied Psychology: Health and Well-being, 3, 127–150. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1758-0854.2011.01048.x

Beauchamp, M. R., Liu, Y., Morton, K. L., Martin, L. J., Wilson, A. H., Wilson, A.J., Sylvester, B. D., Zumbo, B. D., y Barling, J. (2014). Transformational teaching and adolescent physical activity: Multilevel and meditational effects. International Journal Behavioral Medicine, 21, 537–546. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12529-013-9321-2

Bentler, P. M. (1995). EQS structural equations program manual. Encino, CA: Multivariate Software.

Bono, J. E., y Judge, T. A. (2004). Personality and transformational and transactional leadership: a meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 89, 901–910. https://psycnet.apa.org/doi/10.1037/0021-9010.89.5.901

Carless, S. A. (1998). Assessing the discriminant validity of transformational leader behaviour as measured by the MLQ 1. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 71, 353–358. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8325.1998.tb00681.x

Cheung, G. W., y Rensvold, R. B. (2002). Evaluating goodness-of- fit indexes for testing measurement invariance. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 9(2), 233–255. https://doi.org/10.1207/S15328007SEM0902_5

Choi, S. L., Goh, C. F., Adam, M. B. H., y Tan, O. K. (2016). Transformational leadership, empowerment, and job satisfaction: The mediating role of employee empowerment. Human Resources for Health, 14, 73. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12960-016-0171-2

Conger, J.A., y Kanungo, R.A. (1987). Toward a behavioral theory of charismatic Leadership in organizacional settings. Academy of Management Review, 12, 637–647. https://doi.org/10.5465/amr.1987.4306715

Crede, M., Jong, J., y Harms, P. (2019). The generalizability of transformational leadership across cultures: a meta-analysis. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 34, 139–155. https://doi.org/10.1108/JMP-11-2018-0506

Day, C., Gu, Q., y Sammons, P. (2016). The impact of leadership on student outcomes: How successful school leaders use transformational and instructional strategies to make a difference. Educational Administration Quarterly, 52(2), 221–258. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F0013161X15616863

Fernet, C., Trépanier, S. G., Austin, S., Gagné, M., y Forest, J. (2015). Transformational leadership and optimal functioning at work: On the mediating role of employees' perceived job characteristics and motivation. Work & Stress, 29, 11–31. https://doi.org/10.1080/02678373.2014.1003998

García-Tuñón, G. M., Cistone, P. J., y Reio, T. G. (2016). Successful and sustained leadership: A case study of a Jesuit High School President. Education and Urban Society, 48, 611–623. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F0013124514541812

Harms, P. D., Credé, M., Tynan, M., Leon, M., y Jeung, W. (2017). Leadership and stress: A meta-analytic review. The Leadership Quarterly, 28, 178–194. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.leaqua.2016.10.006

Harrison, J. (2011). Instructor transformational leadership and student outcomes. Emerging Leadership Journeys, 4, 82–136.

Hermosilla, D., Amutio, A., Costa, S. D., y Páez, D. (2016). El liderazgo transformacional en las organizaciones: Variables mediadoras y consecuencias a largo plazo. Revista de Psicología del Trabajo y de las Organizaciones, 32, 135–143. http://hdl.handle.net/10810/25248

Hinkin, T. R., y Schriesheim, C. A. (2008). A theoretical and empirical examination of the transactional and non-leadership dimensions of the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ). The Leadership Quarterly, 19, 501–513. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.leaqua.2008.07.001

Hofmann, D. A., y Jones, L. M. (2005). Leadership, collective personality, and performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 90, 509–522. https://psycnet.apa.org/doi/10.1037/0021-9010.90.3.509

Holtz, B. C., y Hu, B. (2017). Passive leadership: Relationships with trust and justice perceptions. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 32(1), 119–130. https://doi.org/10.1108/JMP-02-2016-0029

House, R.J., Spangler, W.D., y Woycke, J. (1991). Personality and charisma in the U.S. presidency: A psychological theory of leadership effectiveness. Administrative Science Quarterly, 36, 364–396. https://doi.org/10.5465/ambpp.1990.4978722

Hu, L., y Bentler, P.M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modelling, 6, 1–55. https://doi.org/10.1080/10705519909540118

Hunt, J. (1991). Leadership: A new synthesis. Thousand Oaks: Sage pulications.

Judge, T. A., y Piccolo, R. F. (2004). Transformational and transactional leadership: a meta-analytic test of their relative validity. Journal of Applied Psychology, 89, 755–768. https://psycnet.apa.org/doi/10.1037/0021-9010.89.5.755

Judge, T. A., Weiss, H. M., Kammeyer-Mueller, J. D., y Hulin, C. L. (2017). Job attitudes, job satisfaction, and job affect: A century of continuity and of change. Journal of Applied Psychology, 102, 356–374. https://psycnet.apa.org/doi/10.1037/apl0000181

López-Vílchez, J. J., Grau-Alberola, E., y Gil-Monte, P. R. (2018). Relación entre los estilos de liderazgo Transformacional y laissez-faire y el Síndrome de Quemarse por el Trabajo en profesores de educación secundaria. Acciones e Investigaciones Sociales, 39, 223–254 https://doi.org/10.26754/ojs_ais/ais.2018393239

Loewenthal, K. M. (2001). An introduction to psychological tests and scales (2nd Ed.). Hove, UK: Psychology Press.

Martínez-Córcoles, M., y Stephanou, K. (2017). Linking active transactional leadership and safety performance in military operations. Safety Science, 96, 93–101. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2017.03.013

McCarley, T. A., Peters, M. L., y Decman, J. M. (2016). Transformational leadership related to school climate: A multi-level analysis. Educational Management Administration & Leadership, 44, 322–342. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F1741143214549966

Mirón, F. B., Ortega, F. Z., Martínez, A. M., y Sanchez, M. L. Z. (2019). Análisis psicométrico y relaciones de diagnóstico de la inteligencia emocional y liderazgo en docentes de enseñanzas regladas. Revista de Investigación Educativa, 37, 201–216. https://doi.org/10.6018/rie.37.1.308801

Molero, F., Recio, P., y Cuadrado, I. (2010). Liderazgo transformacional y liderazgo transaccional: Un análisis de la estructura factorial del Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) en una muestra española. Psicothema, 22, 495–501.

Morton, K. L., Keith, S. E., y Beauchamp, M. (2010). Transformational teaching and physical activity: a new paradigm for adolescent health promotion? Journal of Health Psychology, 15, 248–257. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F1359105309347586

Muenjohn, N., y Armstrong, A. (2008). Evaluating the structural validity of the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ), capturing the leadership factors of transformational-transactional leadership. Contemporary Management Research, 4, 3–14. https://doi.org/10.7903/cmr.704

Muthén, L. K., y Muthén, B. O. (1998-2015). Mplus User’s Guide (7ª Ed.). Los Ángeles, CA: Muthén y Muthén.

Niessen, C., Mäder, I., Stride, C., y Jimmieson, N. L. (2017). Thriving when exhausted: The role of perceived transformational leadership. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 103, 41–51. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2017.07.012

Noland, A., y Richards, K. (2014). The relationship among transformational teaching and student motivation and learning. Journal of Effective Teaching, 14, 5–20.

Noland, A., y Richards, K. (2015). Servant teaching: An exploration of teacher servant leadership on student outcomes. Journal of the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, 15(6), 16–38. https://doi.org/10.14434/josotl.v15i6.13928

Northouse, S. G. (2012). Leadership, theory and practice. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage publications.

Nunnally, J. C. (1991). Teoría psicométrica. México, DF: Trillas.

Öqvist, A., y Malmström, M. (2018). What motivates students? A study on the effects of teacher leadership and students’ self-efficacy. International Journal of Leadership in Education, 21, 155–175. https://doi.org/10.1080/13603124.2017.1355480

Pachler, D., Kuonath, A., y Frey, D. (2019). How transformational lecturers promote students' engagement, creativity, and task performance: The mediating role of trust in lecturer and self-efficacy. Learning and Individual Differences, 69, 162–172. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lindif.2018.12.004

Rittschof, K. R., y Fortunato, V. J. (2016). The influence of transformational leadership and job burnout on child protective services case managers' commitment and intent to quit. Journal of Social Service Research, 42, 372–385. https://doi.org/10.1080/01488376.2015.1101047

Robinson, V. M., Lloyd, C. A., y Rowe, K. J. (2014). El impacto del liderazgo en los resultados de los estudiantes: Un análisis de los efectos diferenciales de los tipos de liderazgo. REICE. Revista Electrónica Iberoamericana sobre Calidad, Eficacia y Cambio en Educación, 12, 13–40. http://hdl.handle.net/10486/663297

Sethibe, T., y Steyn, R. (2017). The impact of leadership styles and the components of the leadership styles on innovative behaviour. International Journal of Innovation Management, 21, 1–19. https://doi.org/10.1142/S1363919617500153

Sirisookslip, S., Ariratana, W., y Ngang, T. K. (2015). The impact of leadership styles of school administrators on affecting teacher effectiveness. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 186, 1031–1037. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.04.022

Smith, P. B., y Peterson, M. F. (1988). Leadership, organizations and culture. Nueva York, NY: Sage publications.

Villa-Sánchez, A. (2019). Liderazgo: Una clave para la innovación y el cambio educativo. Revista de Investigación Educativa, 37, 301–326. https://doi.org/10.6018/rie.37.2.365461

Wong, S. I., y Giessner, S. R. (2018). The thin line between empowering and laissez-faire leadership: An expectancy-match perspective. Journal of Management, 44, 757–783. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F0149206315574597

Yang, I. (2015). Positive effects of laissez-faire leadership: conceptual exploration. Journal of Management Development, 34, 1246–1261. https://doi.org/10.1108/JMD-02-2015-0016

Yukl, G. (1994). Leadership in organization (3rd ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Publicado
25-04-2021
Cómo citar
Moreno-Casado, H., Leo-Marcos, F. M., López-Gajardo, M. Ángel, García-Calvo, T., Cuevas, R., & Sánchez-Oliva, D. (2021). Adaptación y validación de la escala de liderazgo MLQ-5X al contexto educativo español. Anales de Psicología / Annals of Psychology, 37(2), 311-322. https://doi.org/10.6018/analesps.425351
Número
Sección
Psicología evolutiva y de la educación