Perfectionism and sporting practice. Functional stress regulation in adolescence

Keywords: functionality, perceived stress, perfectionism, adolescents, physical activity

Abstract

Systematic practice of physical activity (PA) in childhood and adolescence enables the development of functional resources for subjective perception of well-being, stimulation of cognitive processes, and construction of the personality. The development of perfectionist beliefs is currently seen as a functional characteristic linked to positive aspects (positive affect, self-esteem, etc.), while its dysfunctional aspects have been associated with anxiety and stress. The aim of this study is to identify which indicators of perfectionism provide functional conditions/skills that, in combination with the level of practice of physical activity, facilitate stress regulation. A sample of 365 adolescents (183 girls and 182 boys) aged between 13 and 17 participated. The results show that as the intensity of physical activity increases, there are significant changes in the indicators for functional perfectionism (high personal standards and organisation), with reference to facilitating (at moderate levels) or limiting (if excessive or absent) perceived stress and, above all, increased intensity of physical activity accentuates dysfunctional perfectionism patterns. This research has made it possible to identify active psychological processes that influence functional or dysfunctional psychological responses in adolescents depending on their level of perfectionism and the intensity of practise of PA.

References

Biddle, S., Wang, C. J., Kavussanu, M., y Spray, C. (2003). Correlates of achievement goal orientations in physical activity: A systematic review of research. European Journal of Sport Science, 3(5), 1-20. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17461390300073504

Bolaños, M. C., Cornejo, J. M., Rocha, C. L., Vitoria, R. V., Flores, B. C., y Campos, R. G. (2016). Patrones de actividad física de adolescentes escolares: validez, confiabilidad y propuesta de percentiles para su evaluación. Revista Chilena de Pediatría. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rchipe.2016.07.010

Brand, S., Kalak, N., Gerber, M., Clough, P. J., Lemola, S., Sadeghi Bahmani, D., Püshe, U., y Holsboer-Trachsler, E. (2017). During early to mid adolescence, moderate to vigorous physical activity is associated with restoring sleep, psychological functioning, mental toughness and male gender. Journal of Sports Sciences, 35(5), 426-434. DOI: 10.1080/02640414.2016.1167936

Breeding, T. W., y Anshel, M. H. (2015). Relationship between sport perfectionism and perceived competence as a function of skill level and sport type. Journal of Sport Behavior, 38(4), 376.

Cairney, J., Kwan, M.Y., Veldhuizen, S., y Faulkner, G.E. (2014). Who uses exercise as a coping strategy for stress? Results from a national survey of Canadians. Journal of Physical Activity and Health, 11(5), 908-9016. https://doi.org/10.1123/jpah.2012-0107

Carrasco, A., Belloch, A., y Perpiñá. C. (2010). La evaluación del perfeccionismo: utilidad de la Escala Multidimensional de Perfeccionismo en población española. Análisis de Modificación de Conducta, 36(153), 49-65.

Chaddock, L., Pontiflex, M. B., Hillman, C. H. y Kramer, A. F. (2011). A review of the relation of aerobic fitness and physical activity to brain structure and function in children. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 17, 975-985. Doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/s1355617711000567

Codina, N., y Pestana, J. V. (2016). Actividad físico-deportiva como experiencia de ocio y Perspectiva Temporal en los jóvenes. Revista de Psicología del Deporte, 25(2), 53-60.

Cohen, S., Kamarck, T., y Mermelstein, R. (1983). A global measure of perceived stress. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 24, 385-396. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2136404

Dunkley, D. M., Berg, J. -L., y Zuroff, D. C. (2012). The role of perfectionism in daily self- esteem, attachment, and negative affect. Journal of Personality, 80(3), 633–663. DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-6494.2011.00741.x

Fernández-Bustos, J. G., González-Martí, I., Contreras, O., y Cuevas, R. (2015). Relación entre imagen corporal y autoconcepto físico en mujeres adolescentes. Revista Latinoamericana de Psicología, 47(1), 25-33.

Flett, G. L., y Hewitt, P. L. (2005). The perils of perfectionism in sports and exercise. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 14(1), 14-18. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.0963-7214.2005.00326.x

Franche, V., y Gaudreau, P. (2016). Integrating dispositional perfectionism and within-person variations of perfectionism across life domains into a multilevel extension of the 2×2 model of perfectionism. Personality and Individual Differences, 89, 55-59. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2015.09.046

Frost, R.O., Marten, P., Lahart, C., y Rosenblate, R. (1990). The dimensions of perfectionism. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 14(5), 449-468. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01172967

González, J., Garcés de los Fayos, E. J., y García del Castillo, A. (2011). Percepción de bienestar psicológico y fomento de la práctica de actividad física en población adolescente. Revista Internacional de Ciencias Sociales y Humanidades, 21(2), 55-71.

González, J., y González-Reyes, A. (2017). Perfeccionismo y “alarma adaptativa” a la ansiedad en deportes de combate. Revista de Psicología del Deporte, 26(2), 15-23.

González, J., y Portolés, A. (2014). Actividad física extraescolar: relaciones con la motivación educativa, rendimiento académico y conductas asociadas a la salud. Revista Iberoamericana de Psicología del Ejercicio y el Deporte, 9(1), 51-65.

Gotwals, J. K., Stoeber, J., Dunn, J. G. H., y Stoll, O. (2012). Are perfectionistic strivings in sport adaptive? A systematic review of confirmatory, contradictory, and mixedevidence. Canadian Psychology, 53(4), 263-279. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0030288

Gustafsson, H., Hill, A. P., Stenling, A., y Wagnsson, S. (2016). Profiles of perfectionism, parental climate, and burnout among competitive junior athletes. Scandinavian journal of Medicine yScience in Sports, 26(10), 1256-1264. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/sms.12553

Hamilton, A., Foster, C., y Richards, J. (2016). A systematic review of the mental health impacts of sport and physical activity programmes for adolescents in post-conflict settings. Journal Sport Dev, 4, 44-59.

Hill, A. P., y Curran, T. (2016). Multidimensional perfectionism and burnout: A meta-analysis. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 20(3), 269-288. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1088868315596286

Hill, A. P., Hall, H. K., Appleton, P. R., y Kozub, S. A. (2008). Perfectionism and burnout in junior elite soccer players: The mediating influence of unconditional self-acceptance. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 9(5), 630-644. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2007.09.004

Hill, A. P., Witcher, C. S., Gotwals, J. K., y Leyland, A. F. (2015). A qualitative study of perfectionism among self-identified perfectionists in sport and the performing arts. Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology, 4(4), 237. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/spy0000041

Hussain, A., y Qazi, J. I. (2016). Metals-induced functional stress in sulphate-reducing thermophiles. 3 Biotech, 6(1), 17. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13205-015-0342-1

Laible, D., Carlo, G., Davis, A. N., y Karahuta, E. (2016). Maternal sensitivity and effortful control in early childhood as predictors of adolescents’ adjustment: The mediating roles of peer group affiliation and social behaviors. Developmental Psychology, 52(6), 922.

Lizmore, M. R., Dunn, J. G., y Dunn, J. C. (2017). Perfectionistic strivings, perfectionistic concerns, and reactions to poor personal performances among intercollegiate athletes. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 33, 75-84. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2017.07.010

Longbottom, J.L., Grove, J. R., y Dimmock. J.A. (2010). An examination of perfectionism traits and physical activity motivation. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 11, 574-581. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2010.06.007

Martín-Martínez, I., Chirosa-Ríos, L. J., Reigal-Garrido, R. E., Hernández-Mendo, A., Juárez-Ruiz-de-Mier, R., y Guisado-Barrilao, R. (2015). Efectos de la actividad física sobre las funciones ejecutivas en una muestra de adolescentes. Anales de Psicología, 31(3), 962-971.

May, R. W., y Casazza, S. P. (2012). Academic major as a perceived stress indicator: Extending stress management intervention. College Student Journal, 264-273.

McMahon, E. M., Corcoran, P., O’Regan, G., Keeley, H., Cannon, M., Carli, V., y Balazs, J. (2017). Physical activity in European adolescents and associations with anxiety, depression and well-being. European Child y Adolescent Psychiatry, 26(1), 111-122. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00787-016-0875-9

Molina, J., Chorot, P., Valiente, R. M., y Sandín, B. (2014). Miedo a la evaluación negativa, autoestima y presión psicológica: Efectos sobre el rendimiento deportivo en adolescentes. Cuadernos de Psicología del Deporte, 14(3), 57-66.

Monasterio, E., Mei-Dan, O., Hackney, A. C., Lane, A. R., Zwir, I., Rozsa, S., y Cloninger, C. R. (2016). Stress reactivity and personality in extreme sport athletes: The psychobiology of BASE jumpers. Physiology y Behavior, 167, 289-297. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.physbeh.2016.09.025

Moore, E., Holding, A. C., Hope, N. H., Harvey, B., Powers, T. A., Zuroff, D., y Koestner, R. (2018). Perfectionism and the pursuit of personal goals: A self-determination theory analysis. Motivation and Emotion, 42(1), 37-49. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11031-017-9654-2

Muñoz, A. J., y González, J. (2017). Percepción de estrés y perfeccionismo en estudiantes adolescentes. Influencias de la actividad física y el género. Ansiedad y Estrés, 23(1), 32-37. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anyes.2017.04.001

Negru-Subtirica, O., y Pop, E. I. (2016). Longitudinal links between career adaptability and academic achievement in adolescence. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 93, 163-170.

Neil, R., Hanton, S., Mellalieu, S. D., y Fletcher, D. (2011). Competition stress and emotions in sport performers: The role of further appraisals. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 12(4), 460-470. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2011.02.001

Nicholls, A. R., Levy, A. R., Carson, F., Thompson, M. A., y Perry, J. L. (2016). The applicability of self-regulation theories in sport: goal adjustment capacities, stress appraisals, coping, and well-being among athletes. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 27, 47-55. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2016.07.011

Olmedilla, A., Ortega, E., y Candel, N. (2010). Ansiedad, depresión y práctica de ejercicio físico en estudiantes universitarias. ApuntsMedEsport, 45(167), 175-180.

Pastor, Y., Balaguer, I., Pons, D., y García-Merita, M. (2003). Testing direct and indirect effects of sports participation on perceived health in Spanish adolescents between 15 and 18 years of age. Journal of Adolescence, 26, 717-730. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2003.07.001

Peetz, J., Buehler, R., y Britten, K. (2011). Only minutes-a-day: Reframing exercise duration affects exercise intention and behavior. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 33, 118–127. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01973533.2011.568870

Práxedes, A., Sevil, J., Moreno, A., Del Villar, F., y García-González, L. (2016). Niveles de actividad física en estudiantes universitarios: diferencias en función del género, la edad y los estados de cambio. Revista Iberoamericana de Psicología del Ejercicio y el Deporte, 11(1)

Ramírez, W., Vinaccia, S., y Suárez, G.R. (2004). El impacto de la actividad física y el deporte sobre la salud, la cognición, la socialización y el rendimiento académico: una revisión teórica. Revista de Estudios Sociales, 18, 67-75.

Remor, E. y Carrobles, J.A. (2001). Versión Española de la escala de estrés percibido (PSS-14): Estudio psicométrico en una muestra VIH+. Ansiedad y Estrés, 7(2-3), 195-201.

Remor, E., y Pérez-Llantada, M. C. (2007). La relación entre niveles de la Actividad Física y la Experiencia de Estrés y de síntomas de malestar físico. Interamerican Journal of Psychology, 41(3), 313-322.

Roberts, G. C., Treasure, D. C., y Conroy, D. E. (2007). Understanding the dynamics of motivation in sport and physical activity: An achievement goal interpretation. Handbook of Sport Psychology, Third Edition, 1-30. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9781118270011.ch1

Schwebel, F. J., Smith, R. E., y Smoll, F. L. (2016). Measurement of perceived parental success standards in sport and relations with athletes’ self-esteem, performance anxiety, and achievement goal orientation: Comparing parental and coach influences. Child Development Research, 2016. http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/7056075

Spinrad, T. L., y Gal, D. E. (2018). Fostering prosocial behavior and empathy in young children. Current Opinion in Psychology, 20, 40-44. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.copsyc.2017.08.004

Stoeber, J., Otto, K., Pescheck, E., Becker, C., y Stoll, O. (2007). Perfectionism and competitive anxiety in athletes: Differentiating striving for perfection and negative reactions to imperfection. Personality and Individual Differences, 42(6), 959-969. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2006.09.006

Stoeber, J., Stoll, O., Pescheck, E., y Otto, K. (2008). Perfectionism and achievement goals in athletes: Relations with approach and avoidance orientations in mastery and performance goals. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 9(2), 102-121. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2007.02.002

Stoeber, J., y Childs, J.H. (2010). The assessment of self-oriented and socially prescribed perfectionism: Subscales make a difference. Journal of Personality Assessment, 92, 577-585. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00223891.2010.513306

Stults-Kolehmainen, M. A., y Sinha, R. (2014). The effects of stress on physical activity and exercise. Sports Medicine, 44(1), 81-121.

Stumpf, H., y Parker, W. D. (2000). A hierarchical structural analysis of perfectionism and its relation to other personality characteristics. Personality and Individual Differences, 28(5), 837–852. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0191-8869(99)00141-5

Taylor, J., Papay, K., Webb, J., y Reeve, C. (2016). The good, the bad, and the interactive: evaluative concerns perfectionism moderates the effect of personal strivings perfectionism on self-esteem. Personality and Individual differences, 95, 1-5. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2016.02.006

Wong, M. L., Lau, E. Y. Y., Wan, J. H. Y., Cheung, S. F., Hui, C. H., y Mok, D. S. Y. (2013). The interplay between sleep and mood in predicting academic functioning, physical health and psychological health: a longitudinal study. Journal of Psychosomatic Research,74,

Published
24-12-2018
How to Cite
González-Hernández, J., & Muñoz-Villena, A. (2018). Perfectionism and sporting practice. Functional stress regulation in adolescence. Anales De Psicología / Annals of Psychology, 35(1), 148-155. https://doi.org/10.6018/analesps.35.1.326541
Section
Adolescence and psychology