Principios curriculares de un programa de residentes como docentes

una aproximación desde las revisiones sistemáticas

Autores/as

  • Licet Villamizar-Gomez Profesor titular Fundación Universitaria de Ciencias de la Salud
  • Rosangela Casanova-Libreros Fundación Universitaria de Ciencias de la Salud, Bogotá, Colombia
  • Claudia Ibáñez-Antequera Fundación Universitaria de Ciencias de la Salud, Bogotá, Colombia
DOI: https://doi.org/10.6018/edumed.487251
Palabras clave: Residents as teachers, educational strategy, Kirkpatrick model, systematic review

Resumen

Antecedentes. Parte de la enseñanza-aprendizaje en las residencias médicas se genera con los compañeros de residencia; los programas de residentes como docentes (PRCD) fortalecen esta práctica pedagógica. Objetivos. Analizar los principios curriculares de un PRCD siguiendo la postura de Tyler e identificar las estrategias educativas que cambian el comportamiento en el aprendizaje del residente y en la organización educativa según el modelo de Kirkpatrick. Métodos. Se realizó una revisión de revisiones sistemáticas en MEDLINE, EMBASE, ERIC, EPISTEMONIKOS, The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews y LILACS. La calidad global fue evaluada usando la herramienta AMSTAR. Por medio de la literatura publicada, se respondió a la postura curricular de Tyler al describir las estrategias educativas, su evaluación e impacto de la evaluación según Kirkpatrick. Resultados. Se incluyeron siete revisiones sistemáticas; una de ellas obtuvo alta calidad metodológica. Según la literatura, un PRCD requiere una valoración continua de sus participantes. Las estrategias educativas más usadas fueron el taller y el seminario. Los temas que pueden incluirse en el PRCD son liderazgo, habilidades de enseñanza al lado del paciente, evaluación y retroalimentación. En la práctica, actividades pedagógicas similares a One-minute preceptor pueden ser fomentadas. El seguimiento de los PRCD requiere de la observación directa por medio de los OSTE (ejercicios de enseñanza estructurados y objetivos). Conclusiones. El PRCD tiene como finalidad la generación de momentos de enseñanza que alimenten la reflexión de la práctica pedagógica. El PRCD debe contar con estrategias educativas que aumenten la confianza en la enseñanza, habilidades pedagógicas y evaluaciones válidas de la práctica docente.

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Publicado
08-10-2021
Cómo citar
Villamizar-Gomez, L., Casanova-Libreros, R., & Ibáñez-Antequera, C. (2021). Principios curriculares de un programa de residentes como docentes: una aproximación desde las revisiones sistemáticas. Revista Española de Educación Médica, 2(3). https://doi.org/10.6018/edumed.487251