Translation, adaptation, and validation of the Halpern Critical Thinking Assessment to Portugal: Effect of disciplinary area and academic level on critical thinking
Critical thinking is essential today, state higher education institutions, organizations, and society. This study aimed to translate, adapt, and assess the psychometric proprieties of the Portuguese version of Halpern Critical Thinking Assessment (Halpern, 2012), administered to 333 college students. Also, it aimed to analyze if there were differences in total scores according to disciplinary area and academic level. Data support the validity of the Portuguese version of this instrument, and indicate differences in both variables. These findings are of interest in future research conducted in Portugal, and in cross-cultural studies using this test to assess college students' critical thinking. Seeing that critical thinking combines the skill and will that are needed for good thinking, and that, alongside benefits in academic and work contexts, a higher quality of critical thinking is expected to be associated with less negative outcomes in everyday life, this line of research is of most relevance.
Arbuckle, J. L. (2008). Amos 17 users' guide. Chicago, IL: SPSS. ISBN-10: 1-56827-402-5
Badcock, P. B. T., Pattison, P. E., & Harris, K. L. (2010). Developing generic skills through university study: A study of arts, science and engineering in Australia. Higher Education, 60(4), 441-458. doi:10.1007/s10734-010-9308-8
Bolger, D. J., Mackey, A. P., Wang, M., & Grigorenko, E. L. (2014). The role and sources of individual differences in critical-analytic thinking: A capsule overview. Educational Psychology Review, 26(4), 495-518. doi:10.1007/s10648-014-9279-x
Brint, S., Cantwell, A. M., & Saxena, P. (2012). Disciplinary categories, majors, and undergraduate academic experiences: Rethinking Bok’s ‘‘underachieving colleges’’ thesis. Research in Higher Education, 53(1), 1-25. doi:10.1007/s11162-011-9227-2
Butler, H. A., Dwyer, C. P., Hogan, M. J., Franco, A., Rivas, S. F., Saiz, C., & Almeida, L. S. (2012). The Halpern Critical Thinking Assessment and real-world outcomes: Cross-national applications. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 7(2), 112-121. doi:10.1016/j.tsc.2012.04.001
Cisneros, R. M. (2009). Assessment of critical thinking in pharmacy students. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 73(4), 1-7.
Drennan, J . (2010) Critical thinking as an outcome of a master’s degree in nursing programme. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 66(2), 422-431. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2648.2009.05170.x
Ennis, R. H., & Millman, J. (2005a). Cornell Critical Thinking Test, Level X [Measurement instrument]. Seaside, CA: The Critical Thinking Company (formerly Midwest Publications).
Ennis, R. H., & Millman, J. (2005b). Cornell Critical Thinking Test, Level Z [Measurement instrument]. Seaside, CA: The Critical Thinking Company (formerly Midwest Publications).
Ennis, R. H., & Weir, E. (1985). The Ennis-Weir Critical Thinking Essay Test [Measurement instrument]. Pacific Grove, CA: Midwest Publications.
Ericsson, K. A., & Simon, H. A. (1993). Protocol analysis: Verbal reports as data. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.87.3.215
Evens, M., Verburgh, A., & Elen, J. (2013). Critical thinking in college freshmen: The impact of secondary and higher education. International Journal of Higher Education, 2(3), 139-151.
Facione, P. (1990). The California Critical Thinking Skills Test: College Level [Measurement instrument]. Millbrae, CA: California Academic Press. doi:10.5430/ijhe.v2n3p139
Finn, P. (2011). Critical thinking: Knowledge and skills for evidence-based practice. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 42(1), 69-72. doi:10.1044/0161-1461(2010/09-0037)
Franco, A. (2016). What do Ode to Joy, the Nobel Peace Prize, umbrellas, and cartoons have in common? Why critical thinking matters and how higher education moulds. Higher Education for the Future, 3(1), 108-124. doi:10.1177/2347631115610231
Franco, A., & Almeida, L. S. (2015). Real-World Outcomes and critical thinking: Differential analysis by academic major and gender. Paidéia, 25(61), 173-181. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1982-43272561201505
Franco, A. R., Almeida, L. S., & Saiz, C. (2014). Pensamiento crítico: Reflexión sobre su lugar en la enseñanza superior [Critical thinking: Reflections about its place in higher education]. Educatio Siglo XXI, 32(2), 81-96. http://dx.doi.org/10.6018/j/202171
Franco, A. H. R., Butler, H. A., & Halpern, D. F. (2015). Teaching critical thinking to promote learning. In D. S. Dunn (Ed.), The Oxford handbook of undergraduate psychology education (pp. 65-74). New York, NY: Oxford University Press. ISBN: 0199933820
Gadermann, A. M., Guhn, M., & Zumbo, B. D. (2012). Estimating ordinal reliability for Likert-type and ordinal item response data: A conceptual, empirical, and practical guide. Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation, 17(3), 1-13. ISSN: 1531-7714
Halpern, D. F. (2012). Halpern Critical Thinking Assessment [Measurement instrument]. Mödling: Schuhfried.
Halpern, D. F. (2014). Thought and knowledge: An introduction to critical thinking (5th ed.). New York, NY: Psychology Press. ISBN: 13: 978-1848726291
Heijltjes, A., Van Gog, T., & Paas, F. (2014). Improving students’ critical thinking: Empirical support for explicit instructions combined with practice. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 28(4), 518-530. doi:10.1002/acp.3025
Kay, J. (2015, August 25). The benefits of a liberal education do not go out of date. Financial Times. Retrieved from http://www.ft.com
Kline, P. (2000). The handbook of psychological testing (2nd ed.). London: Routledge.
Kline, R. B. (2005). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Guildford Press.
Krupat, E., Sprague, J. M., Wolpaw, D., Haidet, P., Hatem, D., & O’Brien, B. (2011). Thinking critically about critical thinking: Ability, disposition or both? Medical Education, 45(6), 625-635. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2923.2010.03910.x
Ku, K. Y. L. (2009). Assessing students’ critical thinking performance: Urging for measurements using multi-response format. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 4(1), 70-76. doi:10.1016/j.tsc.2009.02.001
Mathews, S. R., & Lowe, K. (2011). Classroom environments that foster a disposition for critical thinking. Learning Environments Research, 14(1), 59-73. doi:10.1007/s10984-011-9082-2
Nussbaum, M. C. (2010). Not for profit: Why democracy needs the humanities. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. ISSN: 1534-6104
Revelle, W. (2015) psych: Procedures for Personality and Psychological Research, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois, USA, http://CRAN.R-project.org/package=psych Version = 1.5.8.
Saiz, C., & Rivas, S. F. (2008). Evaluación en pensamiento crítico: Una propuesta para diferenciar formas de pensar. Ergo, Nueva Época, 22-23, 25-66.
Vieira, R. M., Tenreiro-Vieira, C., & Martins, I. P. (2011). Critical thinking: Conceptual clarification and its importance in science education. Science Education International, 22(1), 43-54.
Watson, G., & Glaser, E. M. (1980, 2005). Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal [Measurement instrument]. London: Pearson Assessment.
Wheaton, B. (1987). Assessment of fit in overidentified models with latent variables. Sociological Methods & Research, 16(1), 118-154. doi:10.1177/0049124187016001005
The works published in this journal are subject to the following terms:
1. The Publications Service of the University of Murcia (the publisher) retains the property rights (copyright) of published works, and encourages and enables the reuse of the same under the license specified in paragraph 2.
2. The works are published in the online edition of the journal under a Creative Commons Reconocimiento-CompartirIgual 4.0 (legal text). You can copy, use, distribute, transmit and publicly display, provided that: i) you cite the author and the original source of publication (journal, editorial and URL of the work), ii) are not used for commercial purposes, iii ) mentions the existence and specifications of this license.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
3. Conditions of self-archiving. Is allowed and encouraged the authors to disseminate electronically pre-print versions (version before being evaluated and sent to the journal) and / or post-print (version reviewed and accepted for publication) of their works before publication, as it encourages its earliest circulation and diffusion and thus a possible increase in its citation and scope between the academic community. RoMEO Color: Green.