Effect of 3x2 achievement goals and classroom goal structures on self-determined motivation: a multilevel analysis in secondary education

  • Antonio Méndez-Giménez Universidad de Oviedo
  • José Antonio Cecchini-Estrada Universidad de Oviedo
  • David Méndez-Alonso Universidad de Oviedo
  • José Antonio Prieto-Saborit Universidad de Oviedo
  • Javier Fernández-Río Universidad de Oviedo
Keywords: personal goal orientation, motivational climate, multilevel models, secondary education


The study faces two objectives: (a) to examine the construct validity of the 3x2 Classroom Goal Structures Questionnaire, and (b) to jointly analyze the influence of the classroom goal structures and 3x2 achievement goals on high school students’ self-determined motivation. 2284 students participated (51.6% men and 48.4% women) aged 12-17 years (M = 14.31 years, SD = 1.15), from 148 classrooms. The results of confirmatory factor analysis supported the hypothesized model. The validity and internal consistency of the questionnaire were satisfactory. The results of hierarchical linear models provided support to the direct, indirect and interaction models. Regarding direct effects, self-approach structure, and self-approach and task-approach goals were positive predictors of self-determined motivation, whereas the other-approach structure, and other-approach and task-avoidance goals were negative predictors. In relation to indirect effects, the results revealed that the three approach goals, and task-avoidance goals were partial mediators of the relationship between the self-approach structure and self-determined motivation, whereas other-approach goals were partial mediators in the relationship with their parallel structure. Regarding the interaction effects, the relationship between task-approach goals and self-determination varied depending on the other-approach structure.


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Author Biographies

Antonio Méndez-Giménez, Universidad de Oviedo

Departamento de Ciencias de la Educación

Profesor de Universidad

José Antonio Cecchini-Estrada, Universidad de Oviedo
Catedrático de Universidad


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How to Cite
Méndez-Giménez, A., Cecchini-Estrada, J. A., Méndez-Alonso, D., Prieto-Saborit, J. A., & Fernández-Río, J. (2017). Effect of 3x2 achievement goals and classroom goal structures on self-determined motivation: a multilevel analysis in secondary education. Anales De Psicología / Annals of Psychology, 34(1), 52-62. https://doi.org/10.6018/analesps.34.1.262131
Developmental and Educational Psychology