Social Support, Self-Esteem and Quality of Life among People Living With HIV/AIDS in Jammu & Kashmir India

  • Mohammad Amin Wani Lovely Professional University Jalandhar Punjab
Keywords: Apoyo social, autoestima, calidad de vida y SIDA

Abstract

Background: The cardinal aim of the present study was to assess the level of social support, self esteem and quality of life among people living with HIV/AIDS in Jammu and Kashmir State of India. Further, the study strived to explore the relationship between independent and dependent variables.
Method: The study consists a sample of 460 AIDS patients selected through purposive sampling technique, out of them 177 (38.3%) were male, 283 (61.5%) were female patients; 295 (64.1%) were married and 165 (35.9%) were unmarried. Measures included Enriched Social Support Inventory by Mitchell et al., (2003), Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale (1965) and Quality of Life Scale by Sharma & Nasreen (2014). For the statistical analysis of data Mean, Standard deviation, Frequency distribution, t-test, one way analysis of variance, correlation analysis and Scheffe’s post hoc test was applied by SPSS 20.0 version.
Findings: The findings illustrated that majority of patients have poor social support, lower self-esteem and poor quality of life; also it reveals that patient’s social support, and self-esteem differs by age, occupation, duration of illness, gender, and marital status. However their quality of life differs only by their age, occupation, duration of illness, and marital status. Further the result shows social support and self-esteem are positively correlated with quality of life.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Abasiubong, F., Ekott, J. U., Bassey, E. A., & Etukumana, E. A. (2010). Quality of life in people living with HIV/AIDS in Niger delta region. Nigeria Journal of Mental Health, 19 (2), 211-218. doi: 10.3109/09638230903469210
Adewuya, A. O., Afolabi, M. O., Ola, B. A., Ogundele, O. A., Ajibare, A. O., & Oladipo, B. F. (2007). Psychiatric disorders among the HIV positive population in Nigeria: a control study. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 63(2), 203-206. doi:10.1016/j.jpsychores.2007.03.006
Astina, I. K., Ahmad, W. I., & Budiyanto, B. (2015). Quality of life of older persons in Indonesia: Sex differences. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, 6(3), 3113-317. doi:10.5901/mjss.2015.v6n3s2p313
Azar, I. A., & Vasudeva, P. (2006). Self efficacy and self-esteem: A comparative study employed and unemployed married women in Iran, German Journal of Psychiatry, 9(3), 111-117.
Bennett, S. J., Perkins, S. M., Lane, K. A., Deer, M., Brater, D. C., & Murray, M. D. (2001). Social support and health related quality of life in chronic heart failure patients, Quality of Life Research 10(8), 671-682. doi: 10.1023/a: 1013815825500
Bharathi, Pai, M. S., & Nayak, B. S. (2014). Quality of life and social support among children living with HIV in south India. Journal of Nursing and Health Science, 3(6), 55-58. doi: 10.9790/1959-03625558
Castrighini, C., Gir, E., Neves, L., Reis, R., Galvão, M., & Hayashido, M. (2010). Depression and self-esteem of patients positive for HIV/AIDS in an inland city of Brazil. Retrovirology, 7 (Suppl 1). doi: 10.1186/1742-4690-7-s1-p66
Cechim, P. L., & Selli, L. (2007). Mulheres com HIV/AIDS: fragmentos de sua face oculta. Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem, 60(2), 145-149. doi:10.1590/s0034-71672007000200004
Charkhian, A., Fekrazad, H., Sajadi, H., Rahgozar, M., Abdolbaghi, M, & Maddahi, S. (2014). Relationship between health related quality of life and social support in HIV infected people in Tehran, Iran. Iranian Journal of Public Health, 43(1), 100-106.
Cobb, S. (1976). Social support as a moderator of life stress. Psychosomatic Medicine, 38, 300-314.
Debra, A. M., & Barbara, A. (2000). Psychological distress among HIV positive adolescents in the reach study: effects of life stress, social support, and coping. Journal of Adolescent Health, 27(6), 391-398. doi: 10.1016/S1054-139X (00)00158-0
Denissen, J. J., Penke, L., Schmitt, D. P., & Aken, M. A. (2008). Self-esteem reactions to social interactions: Evidence for sociometer mechanisms across days, people, and nations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 95(1), 181-196. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.95.1.181
Devi, S., & Jyotsana (2016). Identity formation: Role of social support and self esteem among Indian adolescents. International Journal of Indian Psychology, 3 (2, 4), 114-124.
Gove, W. R., Ortega, S. T., & Style, C. B. (1989). The maturational and role perspectives on aging and self through the adult years: An empirical evaluation. American Journal of Sociology, 94(5), 1117-1145. doi:10.1086/229113
Han, K., Park, E., Kim, J., Kim, S. J., & Park, S. (2014). Is marital status associated with quality of life? Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, 12(1). doi:10.1186/s12955-014-0109-0
Hays, R. D., Cunningham, W. E., Sherbourne, C. D., Wilson, I. B., Wu, A. W., Cleary, P. D., . . . Bozzette, S. A. (2000). Health-related quality of life in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection in the United States: results from the HIV cost and services utilization study. The American Journal of Medicine, 108(9), 714-722. doi: 10.1016/s0002-9343(00)00387-9
Hollywood, J., Hutchings, A., & Dasgupta, B. (2014). Gender differences in health related quality of life in Polymyalgia Rheumatica. Rheumatology, 53 (Suppl 2), I14 doi:10.1093/rheumatology/keu210.007
Hong, S., Bianca, M. A., Bianca, M. R., & Bollington, J. (1993). Self-Esteem: The Effects of Life-Satisfaction, Sex, and Age. Psychological Reports, 72(1), 95-101. doi:10.2466/pr0.1993.72.1.95
Imhonde, H., & Igboanusi, O. (2008). Influence of social support, duration of illness and age on quality of life among breast cancer patients. IFE PsychologIA, 16(2), 91-100. doi:10.4314/ifep.v16i2.23803
J&KSACS (2017). Detail of HIV Clients till August 2017 (ART, Jammu/Srinagar). Assessed from http://www.jksacs.org/art.php on 05-11-2017 at 3.20 pm
Jufar, A. H., Nuguse, F. G., & Misgn, H. G. (2017). Assessment of health related quality of life and associated factors among hypertensive patients on treatment at public hospitals in Mekelle, North Ethiopia. Journal of Hypertension, 6(1), 1000239. doi: 10.4172/2167-1095.1000239
Khurana, P. (1989). AIDS humanity's gravets challenge. (pp. 34-40). Hind Pocket Books, Connaught Place, New Delhi:
Kong, F., Perrucci, C. C., & Perrucci, R. (1993). The impact of unemployment and economic stress on social support. Community Mental Health Journal, 29(3), 205-221. doi:10.1007/bf00778807
Lifson, A., Grandits, G., Gardner, E., Wolff, M., Pulik, P., Williams, I., & Burman, W. (2015). Quality of life assessment among HIV-positive persons entering the INSIGHT strategic timing of antiretroviral treatment (START) trial. HIV Medicine, 16, 88-96. doi:10.1111/hiv.12237
Liping, M., Peng, X., Haijiang, L., Lahong, J., & Fan, L. (2015). Quality of life of people living with HIV/AIDS: A cross sectional study in Zhejiang province, China. PLoS ONE, 10(8): e0135705. doi: 10.1371/ journal.pone.0135705
Mannheimer, S. B., Matts, J., Telzak, E., Chesney, M., Child, C., Wu, A. W., & Friedland, G. (2005). Quality of life in HIV-infected individuals receiving antiretroviral therapy is related to adherence. AIDS Care, 17(1), 10-22. doi: 10.1080/09540120412331305098
Mcmullin, J. A., & Cairney, J. (2004). Self-esteem and the intersection of age, class, and gender. Journal of Aging Studies, 18(1), 75-90. doi:10.1016/j.jaging.2003.09.006
Moksnes, U. K., & Espnes, G. A. (2013). Self-esteem and life satisfaction in adolescents’ gender and age as potential moderators. Quality of Life Research, 22(10), 2921-2928. doi: 10.1007/s11136-013-0427-4
Nakimuli, M. E., Musisi, S., Katabira, E., Nachega, J., & Bass, J. (2011). Prevalence and factors associated with depressive disorders in an HIV+ rural patient population in southern Uganda. Journal of Affective Disorders, 135(1-3), 160-167. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0181960
Nirmal, B., Divya, K., Dorairaj, V., & Venkateswaran, K. (2008). Quality of life in HIV/AIDS patients: A cross-sectional study in south India. Indian Journal of Sexually Transmitted Diseases and AIDS, 29(1), 15. doi:10.4103/0253-7184.42708
Nunes, J. A., Raymond, S. J., Nicholas, P. T., & Webster A. (1995). Social support, quality of life, immune function, and health in persons living with HIV. Journal of Holistic Nursing, 13(2), 174-198. doi: 10.1177/089801019501300207
Pereira, M., & Canavarro, M. C. (2011). Gender and age differences in quality of life and the impact of psychopathological symptoms among HIV infected patients. AIDS and Behavior, 15(8), 1857-1869. doi: 10.1007/s10461-011-9928-8
Pishghadam, M., Bakhshipour, B. A., & Ebrahimi, S. (2013). Self-esteem comparison between employed and non-employed women of Tehran city. Journal of Novel Applied Sciences, 2 (S), 787-790
Quatman, T., & Watson, C. M. (2001). Gender differences in adolescent self-esteem: An exploration of domains. The Journal of Genetic Psychology, 162(1), 93-117. doi: 10.1080/00221320109597883
Rani, K., E. (2016). Perceived social support and psychological well-being: testing the unique association and gender differences among young working adults. International Journal of Indian Psychology, 3 (2, 4), 97-113.
Ranzijn, R., Keeves, J., Luszcz, M., & Feather, N. T. (1998). The role of self-perceived usefulness and competence in the self-esteem of elderly adults: Confirmatory factor analyses of the Bachman revision of Rosenberg’s self-esteem scale. The Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 53B (2), 96-104. doi:10.1093/geronb/ 53b.2.p96
Rashid, A., Bukhari, S. R., Fatima, S. I., Saba, F., & Afzal, F. (2017). Self-esteem among male and female Adolescents, International Journal of Indian Psychology, 4(3), 73-78.
Razavi, P., Hajifathalian, K., Saeidi, B., Djavid, G. E., Rasoulinejad, M., Hajiabdolbaghi, M., . . . Mcfarland, W. (2012). Quality of life among persons with HIV/AIDS in Iran: internal reliability and validity of an international instrument and associated factors. AIDS Research and Treatment, Article ID 849406, doi:10.1155/2012/849406
Reis, R. K., Santos, C. B., & Gir, E. (2012). Quality of life among Brazilian women living with HIV/AIDS. AIDS Care, 24(5), 626-634. doi:10.1080/09540121. 2011.630345
Reis, R. K., Santos, C. B., Dantas, R. A., & Gir, E. (2011). Qualidade de vida, aspectos sociodemográficos e de sexualidade de pessoas vivendo com HIV/AIDS. Texto & Contexto Enfermagem, 20(3), 565-575. doi:10.1590/s0104-07072011000300019
Reza, I. M., & Siddegowda, Y. S. (2010). Social support among Iranian women: influence of age and occupation. Asian Journal of Development Matters, 4(1), 204-210.
Riaz, M., Abid, M., Ullah, N., & Khalid, S. (2016). A study on social support and stress among married women school teachers. International Journal of Emergency Mental Health and Human Resilience, 18(4), 1-3. doi:10.4172/ 1522-4821.1000348
Rigby, K., & Slee, P. (1999). Suicidal ideation among adolescent school children, involvement in bully victim problems, and perceived social support, Suicide and Life Threatening Behavior, 29(2), 119-130. doi: 10.1111/j.1943-278X.1999.tb01050.x
Roberts, H., Pearson, J. C., Madeley, R. J., Hanford, S., & Magowan, R. (1997). Unemployment and health: the quality of social support among residents in the Trent region of England. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health, 51(1), 41-45. doi:10.1136/jech.51.1.41
Robins, R. W., Trzesniewski, K. H., Tracy, J. L., Gosling, S. D., & Potter, J. (2002). Global self-esteem across the life span. Psychology and Aging, 17(3), 423-434. doi: 10.1037//0882-7974.17.3.423
Rom, W. N., & Markowitz, S. (2011). Environmental and Occupational Medicine. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health, p. 745.
Sharir D., Tanasescu M., Turbow D. & Maman Y. (2007). Social support and quality of life among psychiatric patients in residential homes. International Journal of Psychosocial Rehabilitation. 11(1), 81-91.
Shin, S. (2011). A study on health related quality of life in people living with HIV/AIDS in Korea. Health and Social Welfare Review, 31(4), 424-453. doi: 10.15709/hswr.2011.31.4.424
Steitz, J. A., & Owen, T. P. (1992). School activities and work: Effects on adolescent self esteem. Adolescence, 27(105), 37-50.
Tandon, J., & Sharma, R. (2016). Psychological distress and quality of life in male and female caregivers of schizophrenics, International Journal of Indian Psychology, 3(4, 67), 147-157.
Tesfay, A., Gebremariam, A., Gerbaba, M., & Abrha, H. (2015). Gender differences in health related quality of life among people living with HIV on highly active antiretroviral therapy in Mekelle Town, Northern Ethiopia. Bio Med Research International, Article Id 516369, doi: 10.1155/2015/516369
Tiggemann, M. and Lynch, J.E. (2001) body image across the life span in adult women: The role of self objectification. Developmental Psychology, 37, 243-253. doi:10.1037/0012-1649.37.2.243
Unsar, S., Erol,O., & Sut, N. (2016). Social support and quality of life among older adults. International Journal of Caring Sciences, 9(1), 249-257.
Van, D. A. C. (2008). HIVAIDS care & counselling: a multidisciplinary approach (4th ed.). Cape Town: Pearson Education South Africa.
Wani, M. A. (2018). Quality of life among people living with HIV/AIDS in Jammu & Kashmir. Journal of HIV/AIDS Research and Therapy, 1, 1-5. doi: http://doi.org/04.2018/1.10002
Wani, M. A., & Sankar, R. (2017). Social support, self-esteem and suicidal ideation among HIV/AIDS patients in Jammu and Kashmir State. Indian Journal of Health and Wellbeing, 8(9), 944-949
Wani, M. A., & Sankar, R. (2017a).Social support, quality of life and suicidal ideation among people living with HIV/AIDS in ART center Jammu. Indian Journal of Positive Psychology, 8(3), 300-305.
Wani, M. A., & Sankar, R. (2017b). Impact of social support on quality of life among AIDS patients in Kashmir province of Jammu and Kashmir, India. Journal of AIDS & Clinical Research 8(9), 729. doi: 10.4172/2155-6113.1000729
WHO (2017). HIV/AIDS Fact sheet July. Assessed from http://www.who.in /mediacentre/factsheets/fs360/en/ on 16-08-2017 at 2.35 pm.
Published
09-04-2020
How to Cite
Wani, M. A. (2020). Social Support, Self-Esteem and Quality of Life among People Living With HIV/AIDS in Jammu & Kashmir India. Anales De Psicología / Annals of Psychology, 36(2), 232-241. https://doi.org/10.6018/analesps.351111
Section
Clinical and Health Psychology