The Young Schema Questionnaire Short Form 3 (YSQ-S3): does the new four-domains model show the best fit?
The existence of early maladaptive schemas (EMS) is the core concept of Schema Therapy (ST). Several studies have demonstrated that EMSs are involved in many psychiatric disorders. The Young Schema Questionnaire is a self-report measure developed to assess the 18 EMSs and has long form (YSQ-L) and short form (YSQ-S) versions. It is currently in its third version (YSQ-S3). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that aims to validate the YSQ-S3 according to the new proposed organization of EMSs into four domains.
A non clinical sample of 1372 Italian population was involved in this research. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) was conducted to examine the latent structure of the YSQ-S3, including both first- and second-order structures. Cronbach’s alpha and intra-class correlation coefficients were calculated to evaluate internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Correlations between the YSQ-S3 and anxiety and mood symptoms were calculated to measure construct validity.
Cronbach’s alpha of almost all EMSs were higher than 0.7, which indicated good internal reliability, and test-retest reliability was excellent. CFA supports the new proposed organization of EMSs into four domains. Regarding concurrent validity, each schema in the YSQ-S3 was highly correlated with anxiety and mood symptoms.
The new four-domains model of the YSQ-S3 has demonstrated that it can be a useful and valid tool for clinicians and researchers in the self-report measurement of EMSs.
Basile, B., Tenore, K., Luppino, O. I., Mancini, F., & Basile, B. (2017). Schema therapy mode moldel applied to OCD. Clinical Neuropsychiatry, 14(6), 407–414.
Calvete, E., Orue, I., & González-Diez, Z. (2013). An Examination of the Structure and Stability of Early Maladaptive Schemas by Means of the Young Schema Questionnaire-3. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 29(4), 283–290. https://doi.org/10.1027/1015-5759/a000158
Calvete, E., Orue, I., & Hankin, B. L. (2013). Early maladaptive schemas and social anxiety in adolescents: The mediating role of anxious automatic thoughts. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 27(3), 278–288. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.janxdis.2013.02.011
Cicchetti, D. V. (1994). Guidelines, criteria, and rules of thumb for evaluating normed and standardized assessment instruments in psychology. Psychological Assessment, 6(4), 284–290. https://doi.org/10.1037/1040-35184.108.40.2064
Davoodi, E., Wen, A., Dobson, K. S., Noorbala, A. A., Mohammadi, A., & Farahmand, Z. (2018). Early maladaptive schemas in depression and somatization disorder. Journal of Affective Disorders, 235, 82–89. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2018.04.017
Ghisi, M., Flebus, G. B., Montano, A., Sanavio, E., & Sica, C. (2006). Beck Depression Inventory-II. Manuale italiano. Firenze: Organizzazioni Speciali.
Hancock, G. R., & Mueller, R. O. (2011). The Reliability Paradox in Assessing Structural Relations Within Covariance Structure Models. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 71(2), 306–324. https://doi.org/10.1177/0013164410384856
Hawke, L. D., & Provencher, M. D. (2011). Schema Theory and Schema Therapy in Mood and Anxiety Disorders: A Review. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy, 25(4), 257–276. https://doi.org/10.1891/0889-83220.127.116.117
Hawke, L. D., & Provencher, M. D. (2012). The Canadian French Young Schema Questionnaire: Confirmatory factor analysis and validation in clinical and nonclinical samples. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science/Revue Canadienne Des Sciences Du Comportement, 44(1), 40–49. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0026197
Hawke, L. D., Provencher, M. D., & Arntz, A. (2011). Early Maladaptive Schemas in the risk for bipolar spectrum disorders. Journal of Affective Disorders, 133(3), 428–436. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2011.04.040
Kriston, L., Schäfer, J., von Wolff, A., Härter, M., & Hölzel, L. P. (2012). The Latent Factor Structure of Young’s Early Maladaptive Schemas: Are Schemas Organized Into Domains? Journal of Clinical Psychology, 68(6), 684–698. https://doi.org/10.1002/jclp.21846
Lee, S. J., Choi, Y. H., Rim, H. D., Won, S. H., & Lee, D.-W. (2015). Reliability and Validity of the Korean Young Schema Questionnaire-Short Form-3 in Medical Students. Psychiatry Investigation, 12(3), 295. https://doi.org/10.4306/pi.2015.12.3.295
Malogiannis, I. A., Arntz, A., Spyropoulou, A., Tsartsara, E., Aggeli, A., Karveli, S., … Zervas, I. (2014). Schema therapy for patients with chronic depression: A single case series study. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 45(3), 319–329. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbtep.2014.02.003
Mayr, A., Gefeller, O., Prokosch, H. U., Pirkl, A., Fröhlich, A., & De Zwaan, M. (2012). Web-based data collection yielded an additional response bias - But had no direct effect on outcome scales. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 65(9), 970–977. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclinepi.2012.03.005
McGraw, K. O., & Wong, S. P. (1996). Forming inferences about some intraclass correlation coefficients. Psychological Methods, 1(1), 30–46. https://doi.org/10.1037/1082-989X.1.1.30
McNeish, D., An, J., & Hancock, G. R. (2018). The Thorny Relation Between Measurement Quality and Fit Index Cutoffs in Latent Variable Models. Journal of Personality Assessment, 100(1), 43–52. https://doi.org/10.1080/00223891.2017.1281286
Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (1998-2015). Mplus User's Guide. Seventh Edition. Los Angeles, CA: Muthén & Muthén.
Nunnally, J. (1978). Psychometric theory. 2nd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Pedrabissi, L., & Santinello, M. (1989). Inventario per l’Ansia di ‘Stato’ e di ‘Tratto’: Nuova Versione Italiana dello STAI —Forma Y: Manuale. Firenze: Organizzazioni Speciali.
Pinto-Gouveia, J., Castilho, P., Galhardo, A., & Cunha, M. (2006). Early Maladaptive Schemas and Social Phobia. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 30(5), 571–584. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10608-006-9027-8
Pugh, M. (2015). A narrative review of schemas and schema therapy outcomes in the eating disorders. Clinical Psychology Review, 39, 30–41. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2015.04.003
Rezaei, M., Ghazanfari, F., & Rezaee, F. (2016). The role of childhood trauma, early maladaptive schemas, emotional schemas and experimental avoidance on depression: A structural equation modeling. Psychiatry Research, 246, 407–414. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2016.10.037
Sakulsriprasert, C., Phukao, D., Kanjanawong, S., & Meemon, N. (2016). The reliability and factor structure of Thai Young Schema Questionnaire-Short Form 3. Asian Journal of Psychiatry, 24, 85–90. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajp.2016.09.011
Sempértegui, G. A., Karreman, A., Arntz, A., & Bekker, M. H. J. (2013). Schema therapy for borderline personality disorder: A comprehensive review of its empirical foundations, effectiveness and implementation possibilities. Clinical Psychology Review, 33(3), 426–447. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2012.11.006
Shorey, R. C., Anderson, S., & Stuart, G. L. (2013). Early Maladaptive Schemas of Substance Abusers and Their Intimate Partners. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 45(3), 266–275. https://doi.org/10.1080/02791072.2013.805982
Soygüt, G., Karaosmanoğlu, A., & Cakir, Z. (2009). [Assessment of early maladaptive schemas: a psychometric study of the Turkish young schema questionnaire-short form-3]. Turk Psikiyatri Dergisi = Turkish Journal of Psychiatry, 20(1), 75–84. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19306129
Stowkowy, J., Liu, L., Cadenhead, K. S., Cannon, T. D., Cornblatt, B. A., McGlashan, T. H., … Addington, J. (2016). Core Schemas in Youth at Clinical High Risk for Psychosis. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 44(02), 203–213. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1352465815000144
Voderholzer, U., Schwartz, C., Thiel, N., Kuelz, A. K., Hartmann, A., Scheidt, C. E., … Zeeck, A. (2014). A Comparison of Schemas, Schema Modes and Childhood Traumas in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, Chronic Pain Disorder and Eating Disorders. Psychopathology, 47(1), 24–31. https://doi.org/10.1159/000348484
Young, J. E. (2005). Young schema questionnaire – Short form 3 (YSQ-S3). New York, NY: Cognitive Therapy Center.
Young, J.E., & Brown, G. (1990). Young Schema Questionnaire. Cognitive Therapy Center of New York, New York, NY.
Young, J. E., Klosko, J. S., & Weishaar, M. E. (2003). Schema therapy: A practitioner’s guide. New York, NY: The Guilford Press.
Yuan, K.-H. (2005). Fit Indices Versus Test Statistics. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 40(1), 115–148. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327906mbr4001_5
The works published in this journal are subject to the following terms:
1. The Publications Service of the University of Murcia (the publisher) retains the property rights (copyright) of published works, and encourages and enables the reuse of the same under the license specified in paragraph 2.
2. The works are published in the online edition of the journal under a Creative Commons Reconocimiento-CompartirIgual 4.0 (legal text). You can copy, use, distribute, transmit and publicly display, provided that: i) you cite the author and the original source of publication (journal, editorial and URL of the work), ii) are not used for commercial purposes, iii ) mentions the existence and specifications of this license.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
3. Conditions of self-archiving. Is allowed and encouraged the authors to disseminate electronically pre-print versions (version before being evaluated and sent to the journal) and / or post-print (version reviewed and accepted for publication) of their works before publication, as it encourages its earliest circulation and diffusion and thus a possible increase in its citation and scope between the academic community. RoMEO Color: Green.