Affects, resources, culture and perceived health: what is the relationship among them?
The purpose of this research is to understand if the relationship between positive and negative affect (PA/NA) and perceived health is mediated by psychosocial resources, and, whether culture (collectivistic vs. individualistic) has a role in that relationship. Structural Equation Models were applied: The first expressed the direct and indirect relationship PA/NA to health. The second reflected indirect influence of PA/NA on health and, resources mediated between both. Both models were tested in two cultures: one individualistic (Spain) and the other collectivistic (Mexico). The results showed that models work differently in both cultures. In Spain there were no significant differences between the two models. In Mexico, the direct and indirect relationship model functions better. These results have interesting implications: The influence of PA/NA on health could be different depending on the culture, so, future research to reconsider the cultural variable, would be interesting. The way PA vs. NA influences perceived health is different; PA can influence directly and indirectly, through psychosocial resources, while NA can only influence directly. It would be fascinating if future research would replicate this, including more countries, and, using biological measurements of health.
Abad, F. J., Olea, J., Ponsoda, V., & García, C. (2011). Medición en ciencias sociales y de la salud. Madrid: Síntesis.
Arbuckle, J. L. (2006). Amos 7.0 User’s Guide. Chicago: SPSS.
Bentler, B. M., & Bonett, D. G. (1980). Significance tests and goodness of fit in the analysis of covariance structures. Psychological Bulletin, 88, 588-606. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.88.3.588
Bentler, P. M. (1990). Comparative fit indexes in structural models. Psy-chological Bulletin, 107, 238-246. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.107.2.238
Byrne, B. M. (2001). Structural equation modeling with AMOS basic concepts, applications, and programming. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Chida, Y., & Steptoe, A. (2008). Positive psychological well-being and mortality: a quantitative review of prospective observational stud-ies. Psychosomatic medicine, 70(7), 741-756. doi: 10.1097/PSY.0b013e31818105ba
Cloninger, C. R., & Zohar, A. H. (2011). Personality and the perception of health and happiness. Journal of affective disorders, 128, 1, 24-32. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2010.06.012
Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioural sciences (2ª ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Cohen, S, A., Doyle, W. J., Treanor, J. J., & Turner, R. B. (2006). Posi-tive emotional style predicts resistance to illness after experi-mental exposure to rhinovirus or influenza A virus. Psychosomatic Medicine, 6, 809–815. doi: 10.1097/01.psy.0000245867.92364.3c
Cohen, S. A. & Pressman, S. D. (2006). Positive Affect and Health. Cur-rent Directions in Psychological Science, 3, 122-125. doi: 10.1111/j.0963-7214.2006.00420.x
Crawford, J. R., & Henry, J. D. (2004). The Positive and Negative Af-fect Schedule (PANAS): Construct validity, measurement proper-ties and normative data in a large non‐clinical sample. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 43, 3, 245-265. doi: 10.1348/0144665031752934
Danner, D. D., Snowdon, D. A., & Friesen, W. V. (2001). Positive emo-tions in early life and longevity: findings from the nun study. Journal of personality and social psychology, 80(5), 804. doi: 10.1037/0022-3518.104.22.1684
Díaz, D., Rodríguez-Carvajal, R., Blanco, A., Moreno-Jiménez, B., Gal-lardo, I., Valle, C., & van Dierendonck, D. (2006). Adaptación es-pañola de las escalas de bienestar psicológico de Ryff. Psicothema, 18, 572-577.
Diener, E. & Chan, M.Y. (2011). Happy People Live Longer: Subjective Well-Being
Contributes to Health and Longevity. Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being, 1, 1-43. doi: 10.1111/j.1758-0854.2010.01045.x
Diener, E., & Emmons, R. A. (1984). The independence of positive and negative affect. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 47, 1105–1117. doi: 10.1037/0022-3522.214.171.1245
Dockray, S. & Steptoe, A. (2010). Positive affect and psychobiological processes. Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev., 1, 69-75. doi: 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2010.01.006
Fang, C. Y., Miller, S. M., Bovbjerg, D. H., Bergman, C., Edelson, M. I., Rosenblum, N. G., Bove, B. A., Godwin, A. K., Campbell, D. E., & Douglas, S. D. (2008). Perceived stress is associated with impaired T-cell response to HPV16 in women with cervical dysplasia. An-nals of behavioral medicine, 35(1), 87-96.
Fredrickson, B. L. (2001). The role of positive emotions in positive psychology: The broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions. American Psychologist, 56, 218 –226. doi: 10.1037/0003-066X.56.3.218
Glaser, R., & Kiecolt-Glaser, J. K. (2005). Stress-induced immune dys-function: implications for health. Nature Reviews Immunology, 5, 3, 243-251.
Gignac, G. E. (2007). Multi-factor modelling in individual differences research: Some suggestions and recommendations. Personality and Individual Differences, 42, 37–48.
Green, E. G., Deschamps, J. C., & Paez, D. (2005). Variation of indi-vidualism and collectivism within and between 20 countries a ty-pological analysis. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 36, 3, 321-339. doi: 10.1177/0022022104273654
Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B., Anderson, R. E., & Tatham, R. L. (2006). Multivariate Data Analysis (6th Edition). New Jersey: Pearson.
Hobfoll, S. E. (1989). Conservation of resources: A new attempt at conceptualizing stress. American psychologist, 44, 3, 513. doi: 10.1037/0003-066X.44.3.513
Hobfoll, S. E. (2002). Social and psychological resources and adapta-tion. Review of General Psychology, 6, 4, 307–324. doi: 10.1037/1089-26126.96.36.1997
Iraurgi, I. (2012). Calidad de Vida como indicador de resultados en Sa-lud. Calidad de vida, inclusión social y procesos de intervención, 9, 61.
James, L. R., Mulaik, S. A., & Brett, J. M. (1982). Causal analysis: models, as-sumptions and data. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
Jöreskog, K.G., & Sörbom, D. (1993). LISREL 8: user’s guide. Chicago: Scientific Software International.
Kiecolt-Glaser, J. K., & Glaser, R. (2002). Depression and immune function: central pathways to morbidity and mortality. Journal of psychosomatic research, 53(4), 873-876. doi: 10.1016/S0022-3999(02)00309-4
Kiecolt-Glaser, J. K., McGuire, L., Robles, T. F., & Glaser, R. (2002). Psychoneuroimmunology: psychological influences on immune function and health. Journal of consulting and clinical psychology, 70(3), 537.
Kubzansky, L. D., Kawachi, I., Weiss, S. T., & Sparrow, D. (1998). Anxi-ety and coronary heart disease: a synthesis of epidemiological, psychological, and experimental evidence. Annals of Behavioral Med-icine, 20(2), 47-58. doi: 10.1007/BF02884448
Kuppens, P., Realo, A., & Diener, E. (2008). The role of positive and negative emotions in life satisfaction judgment across nations. Journal of personality and social psychology, 95, 1, 66. doi: 10.1037/0022-35188.8.131.52
Lyubomirsky, S., King, L. & Diener, E. (2005).The benefits of frequent positive Affect. Does happiness lead to success? Psychological Bulle-tin, 6, 803-855. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.131.6.803
Pennebaker, J. W. (2000). Psychological factors influencing the report-ing of physical symptoms. In A. A. Stone, J. S. Turkkan, C. A. Bachrach, J. B. Jobe, H. S. Kurtzman & B. S. Cain (Eds.), The science of self-report: Implications for research and practice, (pp. 299-315). New Jer-sey: LEA.
Pressman, S. D. & Cohen, S. (2005). Does Positive Affect Influence Health? Psychological Bulletin, 6, 925–971. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.131.6.925
Ryff, C. D. (1989). Happiness is everything, or is it? Explorations on the meaning of psychological well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57, 1069-1081. doi: 10.1037/0022-35184.108.40.2069
Ryff, C. D. (2013). Eudaimonic well-being and health: Mapping conse-quences of self-realization. Waterman, A. S. (Ed). The best within us: Positive psychology perspectives on eudaimonia, (pp. 77-98). Washington, DC, US: American Psychological Association,
Ryff, C. D., Singer, B. H., & Love, G. D. (2004). Positive health: Con-necting well-being with biology. Philosophical Transactions-Royal Socie-ty of London Series B Biological Sciences, 1383-1394. doi: 10.1098/rstb.2004.1521
Sandín, B., Chorot, R, Lostao, L., Joiner, T.E., Santed, M.A., & Valiente, R.M. (1999). Escalas PANAS de afecto positivo y negativo: Valida-ción factorial y convergencia transcultural. Psicothema, II, 37-51.
Segerstrom, S. C., & Sephton, S. E. (2010). Optimistic Expectancies and Cell-Mediated Immunity The Role of Positive Affect. Psychological science, 21, 3, 448-455. doi: 10.1177/0956797610362061
Setpoe, A. Dockray, S. & Wardle, J. (2009). Positive Affect and Psy-chobiological Processes Relevant to Health. Journal of Personality, 6, 1747-1776.
Steiger, J. H. (1990). Structural model evaluation modification: An in-terval estimation approach. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 25, 173-180. doi: 10.1207/s15327906mbr2502_4
Suh, E., Diener, E., Oishi, S., & Triandis, H. C. (1998). The shifting ba-sis of life satisfaction judgments across cultures: Emotions versus norms. Journal of personality and social psychology, 74, 2, 482. doi: 10.1037/0022-35220.127.116.112
Todaro, J. F., Shen, B. J., Niaura, R., Spiro, A., & Ward, K. D. (2003). Effect of negative emotions on frequency of coronary heart dis-ease (The Normative Aging Study). The American journal of cardiology, 92, 8, 901-906.
Watson, D., Clark, L. A., & Tellegen, A. (1988). Development and vali-dation of brief measures of Positive and Negative Affect: The PANAS Scales. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54, 1063-1070. doi: 10.1037/0022-3518.104.22.1683
Watson, D. (1988). Intraindividual and interindividual analyses of pos-itive and negative affect: their relation to health complaints, per-ceived stress, and daily activities. Journal of personality and social psy-chology, 54, 6, 1020. doi: 10.1037/0022-3522.214.171.1240
Yung, Y. F., Thissen, D., & McLeod, L. (1999). On the relationship be-tween the higher-order factormodel and the hierarchical factor-model. Psychometrika, 64, 113–128.
Copyright (c) 2017 Servicio de Publicaciones, Universidad de Murcia (Spain)
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
The works published in this journal are subject to the following terms:
1. The Publications Service of the University of Murcia (the publisher) retains the property rights (copyright) of published works, and encourages and enables the reuse of the same under the license specified in paragraph 2.
2. The works are published in the online edition of the journal under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 (legal text). You can copy, use, distribute, transmit and publicly display, provided that: i) you cite the author and the original source of publication (journal, editorial and URL of the work), ii) are not used for commercial purposes, iii ) mentions the existence and specifications of this license.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
3. Conditions of self-archiving. Is allowed and encouraged the authors to disseminate electronically pre-print versions (version before being evaluated and sent to the journal) and / or post-print (version reviewed and accepted for publication) of their works before publication, as it encourages its earliest circulation and diffusion and thus a possible increase in its citation and scope between the academic community. RoMEO Color: Green.