Evaluation of early life experiences: the eles scale and its clinical use
Background: The Early Life Experiences Scale (ELES) evaluates the memory of threat and subordination perceived in childhood family relationships based on social rank theory. This scale was adapted to Spanish, its factor structure was tested by cross-validation, and its psychometric properties were explored. Method: 960 subjects participated (863 subjects from the general population and 97 patients). Results: Data confirm the factor structure of the original version by Authors (2003), obtaining a similar model with three factors: submission, threat, and devaluation, which explained 66.31% of the variance. The Spanish version of the ELES was comprised of the same number of items as in the original study and showed adequate indices of validity, internal consistency, retest and combined reliability. Conclusions: The Early Life Experiences Scale (ELES) can be a useful measure for evaluating early life experiences. Its application may be very relevant in studying the relationship between these experiences and psychopathological manifestations in constructing explanatory models.
Akin, A., Uysal, R., & Çitemel, N. (2013). Çocukluk Deneyimleri Ölçeği' nin Türkçe' ye uyarlanması. [The validity and reliability of turkish version of the early life experiences scale]. Kastamonu Eğitim Dergisi, 21 (4), 1541-1550. Retrieved from http://126.96.36.199/ojs/index.php/Kefdergi/article/viewFile/55/43
American Psychiatric Association (2000). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition, text revision (DSM-IV-TR). Washington DC: American Psychiatric Association.
Anderson, J. C., & Gerbing, D. W. (1988). Structural equation modeling in practice: a review and recommended two-step approach. Psychological Bulletin, 103 (3), 411-423. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.103.3.411
Author (2000). The relationship of shame, social anxiety and depression: The role of the evaluation of social rank. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy, 7 (3), 174–189. doi:10.1002/1099-0879(200007)7:3%3C174::AID-CPP236%3E3.0.CO;2-U
Author (2001a). Evolution and social anxiety: The role of attraction, social competition, and social hierarchies. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 24 (4), 723–751. doi: 10.1016/S0193-953X(05)70260-4
Author (2001b). Evolutionary approaches to psychopathology: The role of natural defences. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 35 (1), 17–27. doi: 10.1046/j.1440-1614.2001.00856.x
Author (2001c). Depression and stress: A biopsychosocial exploration of evolved functions and mechanisms. Stress, 4 (2), 121–135. doi: 10.3109/10253890109115726
Author (2014). The origins and nature of compassion focused therapy. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 53 (1), 6–41. doi: 10.1111/bjc.12043
Authors (1998). The role of defeat and entrapment (arrested flight) in depression: an exploration of an evolutionary view. Psychological Medicine, 28 (3), 585-598. doi: 10.1017/S0033291798006710
Authors (2000). The power and omnipotence of voices: Subordination and entrapment by voices and significant others. Psychological Medicine, 30 (2), 337-344. doi: 10.1017/S0033291799001828
Authors (2001). An exploration of evolved mental mechanisms for dominant and subordinate behaviour in relation to auditory hallucinations in schizophrenia and critical thoughts in depression. Psychological Medicine, 31 (6), 1117–1127. doi: 10.1017/S0033291701004093
Authors (2002a). Relationship of anhedonia and anxiety to social rank, defeat and entrapment. Journal of Affective Disorders, 71 (1-3), 141–151. doi:10.1016/S0165-0327(01)00392-5
Authors (2002b). Anger and anger expression in relation to perceptions of social rank, entrapment and depressive symptoms. Personality and Individual Differences, 32 (3), 551-565. doi:10.1016/S0191-8869(01)00057-5
Authors (2003). Recall of threat and submissiveness in childhood: development of a new scale and its relationship with depression, social comparison and shame. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy, 10 (2), 108–115. doi:10.1002/cpp.359
Authors (2004). An exploration of shame, social rank and rumination in relation to depression. Personality and Individual Differences, 36 (5), 1143–1153. doi:10.1016/S0191-8869(03)00206-X
Authors (2005). The relation of paranoid ideation and social anxiety in a mixed clinical population. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy, 12 (2), 124–133. doi:10.1002/cpp.438
Authors (2006). Eating attitudes and striving to avoid inferiority. Eating Disorders, 14 (4), 313-322. doi:10.1080/10640260600796242
Authors (2007a). Social rank and attachment in people with a bipolar disorder. Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, 14 (1), 48–53. doi:10.1002/cpp.508
Authors (2007b). Social anxiety and the shame of psychosis: A study in first episode psychosis. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 45 (5), 1025–1037. doi:10.1016/j.brat.2006.07.011
Authors (2007c). Paranoid beliefs and self-criticism in students. Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, 14 (5), 358–364. doi:10.1002/cpp.537
Authors (2012a). The relationship between self-concealment and disclosure, early experiences, attachment, and social comparison. International Journal of Cognitive Therapy, 5 (1), 28–37. doi:10.1521/ijct.2012.5.1.28
Authors (2012b). Compassion Focused Group Therapy for recovery after psychosis. In C. Steel (Ed.), CBT for Schizophrenia: Evidence-based interventions and future directions (pp. 236–266). Chichester, West Sussex, UK: John Wiley & Sons.
Authors (2013). Entrapment and defeat perceptions in depressive symptomatology: through an evolutionary approach. Psychiatry: Interpersonal and BiologicalProcesses, 76 (1), 53–67. doi:10.1521/psyc.2013.76.1.53
Authors (2014a). Rank perception and self-evaluation in eating disorders. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 47 (5), 543–552. doi:10.1002/eat.22261
Authors (2014b). Body dysmorphic disorder: The functional and evolutionary context in phenomenology and a compassionate mind. Journal of Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders, 3 (2), 150–160. doi:10.1016/j.jocrd.2013.11.005
Authors (2017). The impact of shame, self-criticism and social rank on eating behaviours in overweight and obese women participating in a weight management programme. PLoS ONE, 12 (1), e0167571. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0167571
Baumgartner, H., & Homburg, C. (1996). Applications of structural equation modeling in marketing and consumer research: A review. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 13 (2), 139–161. doi:10.1016/0167-8116(95)00038-0
Bowlby, J. (1980). Attachment and loss: Loss, sadness and depression (Vol. 3). New York: Basic Books.
Curran, P. J., West, S. G., & Finch, J. F. (1996). The Robustness of Test Statistics to Nonnormality and Specification Error in Confirmatory Factor Analysis. Psychological Methods, 1 (1), 16-29.
Elosua, P., & Zumbo, B. D. (2008). Reliability coefficients for ordinal response scales. Psicothema, 20 (4), 896–901.
Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18 (1), 39-50. doi:10.2307/3151312
Goldberg, D.P. (1996). Goldberg General Health Questionnaire. Barcelona: Masson.
Grabhorn, R., Stenner, H., Kaufbold, J., Overbeck, G., & Stangier, U. (2005). [Shame and social anxiety in anorexia and bulimia nervosa]. Zeitschrift Fur Psychosomatische Medizin Und Psychotherapie, 51 (2), 179–193.
Gumley, A. I., Taylor, H. E. F., Schwannauer, M., & MacBeth, A. (2014). A systematic review of attachment and psychosis: Measurement, construct validity and outcomes. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 129 (4), 257–274. doi:10.1111/acps.12172
Hollingshead, A. A. (1975). Five Factor Index of Social Position. New Haven, CT: Unpublished manuscript, Yale University.
Hu, L., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural EquationModeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 6 (1), 1–55. doi:10.1080/10705519909540118
Lopes, B., & Pinto-Gouveia, J. (2013). The relationship between childhood experiences of submissiveness, external shame and paranoia in a portuguese student sample. Progress in Psychology, 1 (1), 1–10. Retrieved from https://www.dora.dmu.ac.uk/bitstream/handle/2086/9820/PP011%E2%80%94%E2%80%94.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y
Muñiz, J., Elosua, P., & Hambleton, R. K. (2013). Directrices para la traducción y adaptación de los tests: segunda edición. Psicothema, 25 (2), 151-157. doi:10.7334/psicothema2013.24
Paetzold, R. L., Rholes, W. S., & Kohn, J. L. (2015). Disorganized attachment in adulthood: Theory, measurement, and implications for romantic relationships. Review of General Psychology, 19 (2), 146–156. doi:10.1037/gpr0000042
Paulik, G. (2012). The role of social schema in the experience of auditory hallucinations: A systematic review and a proposal for the inclusion of social schema in a cognitive behavioural model of voice hearing. Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, 19 (6), 459–472. doi:10.1002/cpp.768
Pinto-Gouveia, J., Matos, M., Castilho, P., & Xavier, A. (2014). Differences between depression and paranoia: The role of emotional memories, shame and subordination. Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, 21 (1), 49–61. doi:10.1002/cpp.1818
Pinto-Gouveia, J., Xavier, A., & Cunha, M. (2016). Assessing early memories of threat and subordination: Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Early Life Experiences Scale for adolescents. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 25 (1), 54-64. doi:10.1007/s10826-015-0202-y
Quijada, Y., Kwapil, T. R., Tizón, J., Sheinbaum, T., & Barrantes-Vidal, N. (2015). Impact of attachment style on the 1-year outcome of persons with an at-risk mental state for psychosis. Psychiatry Research, 228 (3), 849–856. doi:10.1016/j.psychres.2015.05.013
Satici, S. A., Uysal, R., & Akin, A. (2015). Early life experiences and self-compassion: A structural equation modelling. Estudios de Psicología, 36 (2), 343–365. doi:10.1080/02109395.2015.1026123
Stevens, A., & Price, J. (2000). Evolutionary Psychiatry. A new beginning (2nd ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Brunner-Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group.
Tejero, A., Guimera, E., Farré J. M., & Peri, J.M. (1986). Uso clínico del HADS (Hospital Anxiety and Depresión Scale) en población psiquiátrica: un estudio de sensibilidad, fiabilidad y validez. Revista Del Departamento de Psiquiatría Facultad de Medicina de Barcelona, 12, 233–238.
Valmaggia, L. R., Day, F., Garety, P., Freeman, D., Antley, A., Slater, M., … McGuire, P. (2015). Social defeat predicts paranoid appraisals in people at high risk for psychosis. Schizophrenia Research, 168 (1-2), 16-22. doi:10.1016/j.schres.2015.07.050
Wickham, S., Sitko, K., & Bentall, R.P. (2015). Insecure attachment is associated with paranoia but not hallucinations in psychotic patients: The mediating role of negative self-esteem. Psychological Medicine, 45 (7), 1495–1507. doi:10.1017/S0033291714002633
World Medical Association (2013). World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki: ethical principles for medical research involving human subjects. JAMA, 310 (20), 2191–2194. doi: 10.1001/jama.2013.281053
Zigmond, A.S., & Snaith, R.P. (1983). The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 67 (6), 361-370. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0447.1983.tb09716.x
Copyright (c) 2019 Servicio de Publicaciones, University of Murcia (Spain)
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
The works published in this journal are subject to the following terms:
1. The Publications Service of the University of Murcia (the publisher) retains the property rights (copyright) of published works, and encourages and enables the reuse of the same under the license specified in paragraph 2.
2. The works are published in the online edition of the journal under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 (legal text). You can copy, use, distribute, transmit and publicly display, provided that: i) you cite the author and the original source of publication (journal, editorial and URL of the work), ii) are not used for commercial purposes, iii ) mentions the existence and specifications of this license.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
3. Conditions of self-archiving. Is allowed and encouraged the authors to disseminate electronically pre-print versions (version before being evaluated and sent to the journal) and / or post-print (version reviewed and accepted for publication) of their works before publication, as it encourages its earliest circulation and diffusion and thus a possible increase in its citation and scope between the academic community. RoMEO Color: Green.