La personalidad del turista como criterio de segmentación de destinos de sol y playa: una aplicación al destino Gran Canaria

  • Noelia Medina-Ojeda Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria
  • Josefa D. Martín-Santana Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria
  • Diego R. Medina-Muñoz Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria
Palabras clave: Rasgos de personalidad del turista, los cinco grandes, búsqueda de sensaciones, perfil sociodemográfico

Resumen

El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar la influencia de las características sociodemográficas en la personalidad del turista en aras de justificar su potencial como criterio de segmentación de mercados turísticos de sol y playa. Para medir la personalidad se utilizó el método BIG FIVE y el rasgo de personalidad denominado búsqueda de sensaciones, aplicados a una muestra de 450 turistas de Gran Canaria (España). Los resultados muestran que las características sociodemográficas influyen en la personalidad de los turistas, siendo idónea, por tanto, como criterio de segmentación de mercados.

Descargas

La descarga de datos todavía no está disponible.

Citas

ABBATE, C.S. y NUOVO, S.D. (2013) “Motivation and personality traits for choosing religious tourism. A research on the case of Medjugorje”. Current Issues in Tourism, 16 (5), 501-506.

ALLPORT, G.W. (1940): “The psychologist’s frame of reference”. Psychological Bulletin, 37, 1-28.

ALLPORT, G.W. (1961): Patterns and growth in personality. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.

ANDERSON, J.C. y GERBING, D.W. (1988): “Structural equation modeling in practice: A review and recommended two-step approach”. Psychological Bulletin, 103 (3), 411-423.

ARIFFIN, A.A.M., AHMAD, A.H. y ISHAK, N.K. (2008): “Corporate Meeting Destination Choice: The Influences of Consumption Value, Organizational Structure and Personality”. International Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Administration, 9 (4), 313-326.

BARRICK, M.R. y MOUNT, M.K. (1991): “The big five personality dimensions and job performance: A metaanalysis”. Personnel Psychology, 44 (1), 1-26.

BENET-MARTÍNEZ, V y JOHN, O.P. (1998): “Los Cinco Grandes across cultures and ethnic groups: Multitrait-multimethod analyses of the Big Five in Spanish and English”. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75 (3), 729-750.

BOKSBERGER, P., DOLNICAR S., LAESSER, C. y MELANIE RANDLE, M. (2011): “Self-Congruity Theory: To What Extent Does It Hold in Tourism?” Journal of Travel Research, 50 (4), 454-464.

BURNIK, S., JUG, S. y KAJTNA, T. (2008): “Sensation Seeking in slovenian female and male mountain climbers”. Acta Universitatis Palackianae Olomucensis. Gymnica, 38 (3), 15-19.

BURTON, L., HAFETZ, J., y HENNINGER, D. (2007): “Gender differences in relational and physical aggression”. Social Behavior and Personality, 35, 41-50.

CARVER, C.S. y SCHEIER, M.F. (2008): Perspectives on personality. Boston: Pearson/Allyn and Bacon.

CATTELL, R.B. (1992): “Human motivation objectively, experimentally analysed”. British Journal of Medical Psychology, 65, 237-243.

CATTELL, R.B. y KRUG, S.E. (1986): “The number of factors in the 16PF: A review of the evidence with spezial emphasis on methodological problems”. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 46 (3), 509-522.

CHANDLER, J.A. y COSTELLO, C.A. (2002): “A Profile of Visitors at Heritage Tourism Destinations in East Tennessee according to Plog’s Lifestyle and Activity Level Preferences Model”. Journal of Travel Research, 41, 161-166.

CLONINGER, S.C. (2003). Teorías de la personalidad. México: Pearson Education.

COHEN E. (1972): “Towards a sociology of international tourism”. Social Research, 39, 164-182.

COSTA, J.P., TERRACCIANO, A. y MCCRAE, R.R. (2001): “Gender differences in personality traits across cultures: Robust and surprising findings”. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 81 (2), 322-331.

COSTA, P.T Jr. y MCCRAE, R.R. (1988): “Personality in adulthood: A six year longitudinal study of self-reports and spouse rating on the NEO personality inventory”. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54 (5), 853-863.

COSTA, P.T. y MCCRAE, R.R. (1990): “Personality disorders and the five-factor model of personality”. Journal of Personality Disorders, 4 (4), 362-371.

COSTA, P.T. y MCCRAE, R.R. (1992): “Four ways five factors are basic”. Personality and Individual Differences, 13 (6), 653-665.

COSTA, P.T.Jr. y MCCRAE, R.R. (1989): The NEO-PI/FFI manal supplement. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.

CROMPTON, J.L. (1979): “Motivations for pleasure vacations”. Annals of Tourism Research, 6 (4), 408-424.

DANN, G.M.S. (1977): “Anomie, ego-enhancement and tourism”. Annals of Tourism Research, 4 (4), 184-194.

EYSENCK, H.J. (1991): “Personality and Individual Differences. Dimensions of personality: 16, 5, or 3?—Criteria for a taxonomic paradigm”. Personality and Individual Differences, 12 (8), 773-790.

EYSENCK, M.W. y EYSENCK, H.J. (1978): “Impulsiveness and venturesomeness: their position in a dimensional system of personality description”. Psychological Reports, 43, 1.247-1.255.

FELDT, T., METSÄPELTO, R.L., KINNUNEN, U. y PULKKINEN, L. (2007): “Sense of Coherence and Five-Factor Approach to Personality: Conceptual Relationships”. European Psychologist, 12 (3), 165-172.

GOLDBERG, L.R. (1981): “Language and individual differences: The search for universals in personality lexicons”. Review of Personality and Social Psychology, 2, 141-165.

GOLDBERG, L.R. (1990): “An alternative “description of personality”: The Big-Five factor structure”. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 59 (6), 1216-1229.

GOSLING, S.D., RENTFROW, P.J. y SWANN, W.B. (2003): “A very brief measure of the Big-Five personality domains”. Journal of Research in Personality, 37, 504-528.

GRETZEL, U., MITSCHE, N., HWANG, Y.H. y FESENMAIER, D.R. (2004): “Tell me who you are and I will tell you where to go: use of travel personalities in destination recommendation systems”. Information Technology & Tourism, 7 (1), 3-12.

HEE, O.C. y JOHARI, H. (2014): “A Conceptual Analysis of Personality Traits and Customer-Oriented Behaviour in the Health Tourism Hospitals”. International Journal of Caring Sciences, 7 (2), 368-374.

HOLLAND, J.L. (1985): Making vocational choices: A theory of vocational personalities and work environments. New York: Prentice-Hall.

HOYLE, R.H., STEPHENSON, M.T., PALMGREEN, P., LORCH, E.P. y DONOHEW, R.L. (2002): “Reliability and validity of a brief measure of sensation seeking”. Personality and Individual Differences, 32, 401-414.

JACK, S.J. y RONAN, K.R. (1998): “Sensation seeking among high- and low-risk sports participants”. Personality and Individual Differences, 25 (6), 1.063-1.083.

JACKSON, D.N., PAUNONEN, S.V., FRABONI, M. y GOFFIN, R.G. (1996): “A five-factor versus a six-factor model of personality structure”. Personality and Individual Differences, 20, 33-45.

JANI, D. (2014): “Big five personality factors and travel curiosity: are they related?”. Anatolia, 25 (3), 444-456.

JOHARI, H. y HEE, O.C. (2013): “Personality traits and customer-oriented behavior in the health tourism hospitals in Malaysia”. International Journal of Trade, Economics and Finance, 4 (4), 213-216.

JOHN, O. y SRIVASTAVA, S. (1999): The Big Five Trait Taxonomy: History, Measurement, and Theoretical Perspectives. University of California, Berkeley.

KALMUS, V., REALO, A. y SIIBAK, A. (2011): “Motives for Internet use and their relationships with personality traits and socio-demographic factors”. Trames, 15 (4), 385-403.

KROESEN, M. y HANDY, S. (2014): “The influence of holiday-taking on affect and contentment”. Annals of Tourism Research, 45, 89-101.

LAESSER, C. y ZEHRER, A. (2012): “Tell me who you think you are and I tell you how you travel: Exploring the viability of market segmentation by means of travelers' stated personality: Insights from a mature market (Switzerland)”. Tourism Analysis, 17 (3), 285-298.

LARSEN, R.J. y BUSS, D.M. (2008): Personality Psychology. Texas: McGrau Hill.

LEDESMA, R.D., SÁNCHEZ, R. y DÍAZ-LÁZARO, C.M. (2011): “Adjective checklist to assess the big five personality factors in the Argentine population”. Journal of Personality Assessment, 93 (1), 46-55.

LLEWELLYN, D.J. y SÁNCHEZ, X. (2008): “Individual differences and risk taking in rock climbing”. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 9 (4), 413-426.

MATHIEU, J.E. y TAYLOR, S.R. (2006): “Clarifying conditions and decision points for mediational type inferences in organizational behavior”. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 27 (8), 1031-1056.

MCCRAE, R.R. y COSTA, P.T.Jr. (1987): “Validation of the Five-Factor Model of personality across instruments and observers”. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52 (1), 81-90.

MCCRAE, R.R. y COSTA, P.T. (2003). Personality in Adulthood: A Five-factor Theory Perspective. Nueva York: The Guilford Press.

MCCRAE, R.R., COSTA, P.T., OSTENDORF, F., ANGLEITNER, A., HŘEBÍČKOVÁ, M., AVIA, M.D., SANZ, J., SÁNCHEZ-BERNARDOS, M.L., KUSDIL, M.E., WOODFIELD, R., SAUNDERS, P.R. y SMITH, P.B. (2000): “Nature over nurture: Temperament, personality, and life span development”. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78 (1), 173-186.

MUELLER, S. y PETERS, M. (2008): “The personality of freestyle snowboarders: Implications for product development”. Tourism, 56 (4), 339-354.

PASSAFARO, P., CINI, F., BOI, L., D’ANGELO, M., HEERING, M.S., LUCHETTI, L., MANCINI, A., MARTEMUCCI, V., PACELLA, G., PATRIZI, F., SASSU, F. y TRIOLO, M. (2015): “The ‘‘sustainable tourist’’: Values, attitudes, and personality traits”. Tourism and Hospitality Research, 0 (0), 1-15.

PAUNONEN, S.V. y JACKSON, D.N. (2000): “What is beyond the big five? Plenty!” Journal of Personality, 68, 821-835.

PIZAM, A. (2004): “The relationship between risk-taking, sensation-seeking, and the tourist behavior of young adults: A cross-cultural study”. Journal of Travel Research, 42 (3), 251-260.

PIZAM, A., JEONG, G REICHEL, A., BOEMMEL, V.H., LUSSON, J.M., STEYNBERG, L., STATE-COSTACHE, O., VOLO, S., KROESBACHER, C., KUCEROVA, J. y MONTMANY, N. (2004): “The relationship between risk-taking, sensation-seeking, and the tourist behavior of young adults: A cross-cultural study”. Journal of Travel Research, 251 (42), 251-260.

PIZAM, A., REICHEL, A. y URIELY, N. (2002): “Sensation seeking and tourist behaviour”. Journal of Hospitality and Leisure Marketing, 9 (2), 17-33

PLOG, S.C. (1991): A carpenter's tools re-visited: Measuring allocentrism and psychocentrism properly.The first time”. Journal of Travel Research, 29 (4), 51-52.

PLOG, S.C. (1995): Vacation Places Rated. Redondo Beach, CA: Fielding Worldwide.
SCHNEIDER y VOGT, (2012): “Applying the 3M model of personality and motivation to adventure travelers”. Journal of Travel Research, 51 (6), 704-716.

SMITH, V.L. (1977): Anfitriones e invitados. Antropología del turismo. Madrid: Endymion.

TAN, W. y TANG, C. (2013). Does personality predict tourism information search and feedback behaviour? Current Issues in Tourism, 16 (4), 388-406.

TOK, S. (2011): “The big five personality traits and risky sport participation”. Social Behavior and Personality, 39 (8), 1105-1112.

WAGNER, A.M. y HOULIHAN, D.D. (1994): “Sensation seeking and trait anxiety in hang-glider pilots and golfers”. Personality and Individual Differences, 16 (6), 975–977.

XU, S., BARBIERI, C., STANIS, S.W. y MARKET, P.S. (2012): “Sensation-seeking attributes associated with storm-chasing tourists: Implications for future engagement”. International Journal of Tourism Research, 14, 269-284.

ZUCKERMAN, M. y EYSENCK, H.J. (1978): “Sensation seeking in England and America: Cross-cultural, age, and sex comparisons”. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 46 (1), 139-149.

ZUCKERMAN, M. (1979): “Attribution of success and failure revisited, or: The motivational bias is alive and well in attribution theory”. Journal of Personality, 47 (2), 245-287.

ZUCKERMAN, M. (1983): A biological theory of sensation seeking. Hillsdale, NJ: M. Zuckerman (Ed.).

ZUCKERMAN, M. (1984): “Sensation seeking: a comparative approach to a human trait”. Beahavioral and Brain Science, 7, 413-471.

ZUCKERMAN, M. (1990): “The psychophysiology of sensation seeking”. Journal of Personality, 58 (1), 313-345.

ZUCKERMAN, M. (1994): Behavioral expressions and biosocial bases of sensation seeking. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Publicado
28-11-2019
Cómo citar
Medina-Ojeda, N., Martín-Santana, J. D., & Medina-Muñoz, D. R. (2019). La personalidad del turista como criterio de segmentación de destinos de sol y playa: una aplicación al destino Gran Canaria . Cuadernos De Turismo, 1(44), 247-275. https://doi.org/10.6018/turismo.44.404831
Sección
Artículos