Assessing relational, emotional, and physical dimensions of young players during tag games

Esta es un versión antigua publicada el 10-04-2022. Consulte la versión más reciente.


  • Ioritz Gaztelu-Folla Department of Physical Education and Sport, Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea / Universidad del País Vasco, Vitoria-Gasteiz, Spain
  • Asier Gonzalez-Artetxe Department of Musical, Visual Arts and Physical Education Didactics, Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea / Universidad del País Vasco, Vitoria-Gasteiz, Spain
  • Íñigo Vélaz-Lorente Department of Physical Education and Sport, Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea / Universidad del País Vasco, Vitoria-Gasteiz, Spain
  • Asier Los Arcos Society, Sports and Physical Exercise Research Group (GIKAFIT). Department of Physical Education and Sport, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, Vitoria-Gasteiz, Spain
Palabras clave: juego, comunicación, rol socioemocional, afectividad, educación física


Many tag games present unstable motor communications between players, that is, the motor communication varies during the play due to role-changing. A holistic point of view provides a more complete assessment of the experience of the players during the traditional tag games. Thus, the aims of the study were to propose and use a specific guide to assess the relational, emotional, and physical dimensions during a traditional motor game in young players. Twenty-two young players took part in the study. The participants played a modification of the classic it motor game for ten minutes. The relational dimension was assessed by observational methodology analysing counter-communications between the tagger and the runner who experienced the counter-communication. The emotional dimension was assessed by the BECS scale of perceived enjoyment and competence. Physical dimension was assessed by differentiating the tagger, the runner, and the target-player measuring the Total Distance covered per second. The relational analysis provided clues about the social relationship of the group. The high values of enjoyment (4.4 ± 0.6) and perceived competence (4.0 ± 0.6) declared by players (suggested the use of the traditional tag game during Physical Education lessons and sport training. The tagger performed significantly greater total distance than the rest of the players (p=.00; Effect Size= 1.53 – 2.76), suggesting that the assessment of the physical dimension during motor games should be carried out differentiating the motor roles. The assessment of the experience of the players during the motor games differentiating by roles and from a holistic point of view could help to optimise the pedagogical plan.


Los datos de descargas todavía no están disponibles.


Alarifi, A., Al-Salman, A., Alsaleh, M., Alnafessah, A., Al-Hadhrami, S., Al-Ammar, M. A., & Al-Khalifa, H. S. (2016). Ultra Wideband Indoor Positioning Technologies: Analysis and Recent Advances. Sensors, 16(5), 707.

Andersen, M. H., Ottesen, L., & Thing, L. F. (2018). The social and psychological health outcomes of team sport participation in adults: An integrative review of research. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, 47(8), 832–850.

Anguera, M. T., Blanco-Villaseñor, A., Hernández-Mendo, A., & Losada-López, J. L. (2011). Diseños Observacionales: Ajuste y Aplicación en Psicología del Deporte. Cuadernos de Psicología Del Deporte, 11(2), 63–76.

Anguera, M. T., Blanco-Villaseñor, A., Losada, J. L., Sánchez-Algarra, P., & Onwuegbuzie, A. J. (2018). Revisiting the difference between mixed methods and multimethods: Is it all in the name? Quality & Quantity, 52(6), 2757–2770.

Anguera, M. T., & Hernández-Mendo, A. (2015). Técnicas de análisis en estudios observacionales en ciencias del deporte. Cuadernos de Psicología Del Deporte, 15(1), 13–30.

Arias-Estero, J. L., Alonso, J. I., & Yuste, J. L. (2013). Propiedades psicométricas y resultados de la aplicación de la escala de disfrute y competencia percibida en baloncesto de iniciación. Universitas Psychologica, 12(3), 945–956.

Atkinson, G., & Nevill, A. M. (1998). Statistical methods for assessing measurement error (reliability) in variables relevant to sports medicine. Sports Medicine, 26(4), 217–238.

Bakeman, R. (1978). Untangling streams of behavior: sequential analysis of observation data. In G. P. Sackett (Ed.), Observing Behaviour: Data Collection and Analysis Methods (Vol. 2, pp. 63–78). University Park Press.

Bakeman, R., Quera, V., & Gnisci, A. (2009). Observer agreement for timed-event sequential data: A comparison of time-based and event-based algorithms. Behavior Research Methods, 41(1), 137–147.

Bastida-Castillo, A., Gómez-Carmona, C. D., de la cruz-Sánchez, E., & Pino-Ortega, J. (2018). Accuracy, intra- and inter-unit reliability, and comparison between GPS and UWB-based position-tracking systems used for time–motion analyses in soccer. European Journal of Sport Science, 18(4), 450–457.

Belka, D. E. (1998). Strategies for Teaching Tag Games. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 69(8), 40–43.

Black, A., Costello, R., Craft, A., & Katene, W. (2015). ‘It’s all about developing the whole child’: An examination of the ‘legacy’ benefits of Youth Sport Trust’s school-based inclusion initiatives. European Physical Education Review, 21(3), 362–378.

Bunker, D., & Thorpe, R. (1982). A Model for the Teaching of Games in Secondary Schools. Bulletin of Physical Education, 18, 5–8.

Cantón, E., & Checa, I. (2012). Los estados emocionales y su relación con las atribuciones y las expectativas de autoeficacia en el deporte. Revista de Psicología Del Deporte, 21(1), 171–176.

Casey, A., & Goodyear, V. A. (2015). Can Cooperative Learning Achieve the Four Learning Outcomes of Physical Education? A Review of Literature. Quest, 67(1), 56–72.

Chen, A., & Darst, P. W. (2001). Situational Interest in Physical Education: A Function of Learning Task Design. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 72(2), 150–164.

Cohen, J. (1960). A Coefficient of Agreement for Nominal Scales. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 20(1), 37–46.

Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Coledam, D. H. C., Paludo, A. C., Oliveira, A. R. de, & Dos-Santos, J. W. (2012). Dynamic exercise versus tag game warm up: The acute effect on agility and vertical jump in children. Journal of Human Sport and Exercise, 7(1), 243–253.

Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1985). The general causality orientations scale: Self-determination in personality. Journal of Research in Personality, 19(2), 109–134.

Durlak, J. A., Weissberg, R. P., Dymnicki, A. B., Taylor, R. D., & Schellinger, K. B. (2011). The Impact of Enhancing Students’ Social and Emotional Learning: A Meta-Analysis of School-Based Universal Interventions. Child Development, 82(1), 405–432.

Dyson, B., Howley, D., & Shen, Y. (2021). ‘Being a team, working together, and being kind’: Primary students’ perspectives of cooperative learning’s contribution to their social and emotional learning. Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, 26(2), 137–154.

Edwards, K. (2009). Traditional games of a timeless land: play cultures in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities. Australian Aboriginal Studies, 2009(2), 32–44.

Fleiss, J. L., Levin, B., & Paik, M. C. (2003). Statistical Methods for Rates and Proportions. In Statistical Methods for Rates and Proportions (3rd ed.). John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Forrest, G. (2015). Systematic assessment of game-centred approach practices – the game-centred approach Assessment Scaffold. Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, 20(2), 144–158.

Fraser-Thomas, J. L., Côté, J., & Deakin, J. (2005). Youth sport programs: an avenue to foster positive youth development. Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, 10(1), 19–40.

Gao, Z., Hannon, J. C., Newton, M., & Huang, C. (2011). Effects of Curricular Activity on Students’ Situational Motivation and Physical Activity Levels. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 82(3), 536–544.

Gao, Z., Zhang, P., & Podlog, L. W. (2014). Examining elementary school children’s level of enjoyment of traditional tag games vs. interactive dance games. Psychology, Health & Medicine, 19(5), 605–613.

García López, L. M., & Kirk, D. (2021). Coaches’ perceptions of sport education: A response to precarity through a pedagogy of affect. Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, Ahead of print.

Gasser, L., Grütter, J., Buholzer, A., & Wettstein, A. (2018). Emotionally supportive classroom interactions and students’ perceptions of their teachers as caring and just. Learning and Instruction, 54, 82–92.

Gonzalez-Artetxe, A., & Los Arcos, A. (2021). Collective Tactical Variables. In M. Rico-González & J. Pino-Ortega (Eds.), The Use of Applied Technology in Team Sport (1st ed., pp. 131–145). Routledge.

Gonzalez-Artetxe, A., Pino-Ortega, J., Rico-González, M., & Los Arcos, A. (2020). Variability of the Motor Behavior during Continued Practice of the Same Motor Game: A Preliminary Study. Sustainability, 12(22), 9731.

Gonzalez-Artetxe, A., Pino-Ortega, J., Rico-González, M., & Los Arcos, A. (2021). Training effects of artificial rules on youth soccer team tactical behavior. Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, Ahead of print, 1–16.

Graesser, A. C. (2020). Emotions are the experiential glue of learning environments in the 21st century. Learning and Instruction, 70, 101212.

Hopkins, W. G., Marshall, S. W., Batterham, A. M., & Hanin, J. (2009). Progressive Statistics for Studies in Sports Medicine and Exercise Science. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 41(1), 3–12.

Jacobs, J. M., & Wright, P. M. (2018). Transfer of Life Skills in Sport-Based Youth Development Programs: A Conceptual Framework Bridging Learning to Application. Quest, 70(1), 81–99.

Koh, E. (2005). South Korea and the Asian Games: The First Step to the World. Sport in Society, 8(3), 468–478.

Korpershoek, H., Harms, T., de Boer, H., van Kuijk, M., & Doolaard, S. (2016). A Meta-Analysis of the Effects of Classroom Management Strategies and Classroom Management Programs on Students’ Academic, Behavioral, Emotional, and Motivational Outcomes. Review of Educational Research, 86(3), 643–680.

Launder, A. G. (2001). Play Practice: The Games Approach to Teaching and Coaching Sports. Human Kinetics.

Lavega-Burgués, P., Filella, G., Agulló, M. J., Soldevila, A., & March, J. (2011). Conocer las emociones a través de juegos: Ayuda para los futuros docentes en la toma de decisiones. Electronic Journal of Research in Educational Psychology, 9(24), 617–640.

Lavega-Burgués, P., Lagardera, F., Molina, F., Planas, A., Costes, A., & Saez de Ocariz, U. (2006). Los juegos y deportes tradicionales en Europa: entre la tradición y la modernidad. Apunts. Educación Física y Deportes, 85(3), 68–81.

Lavega-Burgués, P., Luchoro-Parrilla, R. A., Serna, J., Salas-Santandreu, C., Aires-Araujo, P., Rodríguez-Arregi, R., Muñoz-Arroyave, V., Ensenyat, A., Damian-Silva, S., Machado, L., Prat, Q., Sáez de Ocáriz, U., Rillo-Albert, A., Martín-Martínez, D., & Pic, M. (2020). Enhancing Multimodal Learning Through Traditional Sporting Games: Marro360°. Frontiers in Psychology, 11, 1384.

Lavega-Burgués, P., Prat, Q., Sáez de Ocáriz, U., Serna, J., & Muñoz-Arroyave, V. (2018). Reflection-on-action learning through traditional games. The case of la pelota sentada (sitting ball) / Aprendizaje basado en la reflexión sobre la acción a través de los juegos tradicionales. El caso de la pelota sentada. Culture and Education, 30(1), 142–176.

Lavega, P., Alonso, J. I., Etxebeste, J., Lagardera, F., & March, J. (2014). Relationship between traditional games and the intensity of emotions experienced by participants. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 85(4), 457–467.

Lawson, H. A. (1988). Realizing the Promise to Young People: Kinesiology and New Institutional Designs for School and Community Programs. Kinesiology Review, 1(1), 76–90.

Light, R. (2004). Coaches’ experiences of Game Sense: opportunities and challenges. Physical Education & Sport Pedagogy, 9(2), 115–131.

Light, R. (2012). Game sense: Pedagogy for Performance, Participation and Enjoyment. In Game Sense: Pedagogy for Performance, Participation and Enjoyment. Routledge.

Luchoro-Parrilla, R., Lavega-Burgués, P., Damian-Silva, S., Prat, Q., Sáez de Ocáriz, U., Ormo-Ribes, E., & Pic, M. (2021). Traditional Games as Cultural Heritage: The Case of Canary Islands (Spain) From an Ethnomotor Perspective. Frontiers in Psychology, 12, 586238.

Maaranen, K., Pitkäniemi, H., Stenberg, K., & Karlsson, L. (2016). An idealistic view of teaching: teacher students’ personal practical theories. Journal of Education for Teaching, 42(1), 80–92.

Mahmoudi, S., Jafari, E., Nasrabadi, H., & Liaghatdar, M. (2012). Holistic Education: An Approach for 21 Century. International Education Studies, 5(3), 178–186.

Martínez-Santos, R., Founaud, M. P., Aracama, A., & Oiarbide, A. (2020). Sports Teaching, Traditional Games, and Understanding in Physical Education: A Tale of Two Stories. Frontiers in Psychology, 11, 581721.

McAuley, E., & Tammen, V. v. (1989). The Effects of Subjective and Objective Competitive Outcomes on Intrinsic Motivation. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 11(1), 84–93.

Miller, R. (2000). Beyond reductionism: The emerging holistic paradigm in education. Humanistic Psychologist, 28(1–3), 382–393.

Moreland, R. L., & Levine, J. M. (1982). Socialization in Small Groups: Temporal Changes in Individual-Group Relations. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 15, 137–192.

Newell, K. M. (1986). Constraints on the development of coordination. In M. G. Wade & H. T. A. Whiting (Eds.), Motor development in children. Aspects of coordination and control (pp. 341–360). Martinus Nijhoff.

Obœuf, A., Collard, L., & Gérard, B. (2008). Le jeu de la «balle assise»: un substitut au questionnaire sociométrique? Les Cahiers Internationaux de Psychologie Sociale, 77(1), 87.

Oboeuf, A., Hanneton, S., Buffet, J., Fantoni, C., & Labiadh, L. (2020). Influence of Traditional Sporting Games on the Development of Creative Skills in Team Sports. The Case of Football. Frontiers in Psychology, 11, 611803.

Parlebas, P. (2001). Juegos, deportes y sociedades. Léxico de praxiología motriz. Paidotribo.

Parlebas, P. (2002). Elementary Mathematical Modelization of Games and Sports. In R. Franck (Ed.), The Explanatory Power of Models (Vol. 1, pp. 197–227). Springer.

Parlebas, P. (2013). Motor Praxeology: A New Scientific Paradigm. In M. Vaczi (Ed.), Playing Fields: Power, Practice, and Passion in Sport (pp. 127–144). Center for Basque Studies.

Parlebas, P. (2020). The Universals of Games and Sports. Frontiers in Psychology, 11, 2583.

Pellegrini, A. D., Dupuis, D., & Smith, P. K. (2007). Play in evolution and development. Developmental Review, 27(2), 261–276.

Pelletier, L. G., Tuson, K. M., Fortier, M. S., Vallerand, R. J., Brière, N. M., & Blais, M. R. (1995). Toward a New Measure of Intrinsic Motivation, Extrinsic Motivation, and Amotivation in Sports: The Sport Motivation Scale (SMS). Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 17, 35–53.

Peris-Delcampo, D. (2020). Diez ideas potenciadoras para rendir al máximo en el deporte. Revista de Psicología Aplicada al Deporte y El Ejercicio Físico, 5, e11.

Pic, M., & Lavega-Burgués, P. (2019). Estimating motor competence through motor games. RICYDE: Revista Internacional de Ciencias Del Deporte, 15(55), 5–19.

Pic, M., Lavega-Burgués, P., & March-Llanes, J. (2019). Motor behaviour through traditional games. Educational Studies, 45(6), 742–755.

Pic, M., Navarro-Adelantado, V., & Jonsson, G. K. (2018). Detection of ludic patterns in two triadic motor games and differences in decision complexity. Frontiers in Psychology, 8, 2259.

Pic, M., Navarro-Adelantado, V., & Jonsson, G. K. (2020). Gender Differences in Strategic Behavior in a Triadic Persecution Motor Game Identified Through an Observational Methodology. Frontiers in Psychology, 11, 109.

Pic, M., Navarro-Adelantado, V., & Jonsson, G. K. (2021). Exploring playful asymmetries for gender-related decision-making through T-pattern analysis. Physiology & Behavior, 236, 113421.

Puente-Maxera, F., Méndez-Giménez, A., & Martínez de Ojeda, D. (2021). Physical activity levels during a Sport Education season of games from around the world. European Physical Education Review, 27(2), 240–257.

Quera, V., Bakeman, R., & Gnisci, A. (2007). Observer agreement for event sequences: Methods and software for sequence alignment and reliability estimates. Behavior Research Methods, 39(1), 39–49.

Rauber, S. B., Boullosa, D. A., Carvalho, F. O., de Moraes, J. F. V. N., de Sousa, I. R. C., Simões, H. G., & Campbell, C. S. G. (2014). Traditional games resulted in post-exercise hypotension and a lower cardiovascular response to the cold pressor test in healthy children. Frontiers in Physiology, 5, 235.

Rico-González, M., Los Arcos, A., Nakamura, F. Y., Gantois, P., & Pino-Ortega, J. (2020). A comparison between UWB and GPS devices in the measurement of external load and collective tactical behaviour variables during a professional official match. International Journal of Performance Analysis in Sport, Ahead of p, 1–10.

Schrader, C., & Nett, U. (2018). The perception of control as a predictor of emotional trends during gameplay. Learning and Instruction, 54, 62–72.

Serna, J., Muñoz-Arroyave, V., Lavega-Burgués, P., March-Llanes, J., Sáez de Ocáriz, U., & Hileno, R. (2017). Influencia de las tareas motrices sobre los estados de ánimo en baloncesto. Revista de Psicología Del Deporte, 26(Supl.1), 37–44.

Soto, A., Camerino, O., Iglesias, X., Anguera, M. T., & Castañer, M. (2019). LINCE PLUS: Research Software for Behaviour Video Analysis. Apunts. Educación Física y Deportes, 137, 149–153.

Taub, M., Azevedo, R., Bradbury, A. E., Millar, G. C., & Lester, J. (2018). Using sequence mining to reveal the efficiency in scientific reasoning during STEM learning with a game-based learning environment. Learning and Instruction, 54, 93–103.

Taylor, R. D., Oberle, E., Durlak, J. A., & Weissberg, R. P. (2017). Promoting Positive Youth Development Through School-Based Social and Emotional Learning Interventions: A Meta-Analysis of Follow-Up Effects. Child Development, 88(4), 1156–1171.

Theodoulides, A., & Armour, K. M. (2001). Personal, Social and Moral Development through Team Games: Some Critical Questions. European Physical Education Review, 7(1), 5–23.

Thorpe, R., & Bunker, D. (1989). A Changing Focus in Games Teaching. In L. Almond (Ed.), The place of physical education in schools (pp. 42–71). Kogan Page.

Tirri, K. (2011). Holistic school pedagogy and values: Finnish teachers’ and students’ perspectives. International Journal of Educational Research, 50(3), 159–165.

Trajkovik, V., Malinovski, T., Vasileva-Stojanovska, T., & Vasileva, M. (2018). Traditional games in elementary school: Relationships of student’s personality traits, motivation and experience with learning outcomes. PLoS ONE, 13(8), e0202172.

Yorks, L., & Kasl, E. (2002). Toward a Theory and Practice for Whole-Person Learning: Reconceptualizing Experience and the Role of Affect. Adult Education Quarterly, 52(3), 176–192.

Cómo citar
Gaztelu-Folla, I., Gonzalez-Artetxe, A., Vélaz-Lorente, Íñigo, & Los Arcos, A. (2022). Assessing relational, emotional, and physical dimensions of young players during tag games. Cuadernos de Psicología del Deporte, 22(2), 203–220.
Ciencias del Deporte