Impacto de la 'última experiencia' sobre el afecto después del ejercicio que alcanza el umbral anaeróbico: Una investigación de laboratorio

Autores/as

  • Adam Laki ELTE University.
  • Ferenc Ihász Eötvös Loránd University. faculty of Psychology https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0213-2237
  • Ricardo de la Vega Departamento de Educación Física, Deporte y Motricidad Humana. Facultad de Educación. Universidad Autónoma de Madrid
  • Roberto Ruiz-Barquín Universidad Autónoma de Madrid
  • Attila Szabo ELTE Eötvös Loránd University https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7321-9861
DOI: https://doi.org/10.6018/cpd.469571
Palabras clave: Arousal, Cognition, Expectation, Feeling state, Placebo effect

Resumen

Los beneficios a nivel emocional de un solo período de entrenamiento han sido ampliamente estudiados, pero su efecto medido después del entrenamiento está influenciado por varios factores. Uno de ellos es la última experiencia vinculada a la sesión de entrenamiento. En este estudio de laboratorio se manipula, mediante el empleo de tareas cognitivas, el ejercicio progresivo en cinta de correr hasta alcanzar el umbral ventilatorio. Tanto durante como inmediatamente después del ejercicio se evalúa la respuesta afectiva y se compara con la línea basal previa al ejercicio. Se espera que las respuestas emocionales después del ejercicio reflejarán los estados afectivos asociados con la última experiencia (es decir, la tarea cognitiva), en lugar de con el ejercicio. Se evaluaron 53 atletas asignados al grupo experimental de ejercicio o al control sin ejercicio. Se midieron el estado afectivo positivo y negativo y la excitación percibida, tanto antes como después de la intervención. Los resultados revelaron mejoras sustanciales en el estado afectivo en ambos grupos, mostrando grandes tamaños del efecto. La falta de diferencia en las variables dependientes entre el grupo experimental  y el control sugiere que ambos grupos respondieron de manera similar a la última experiencia, es decir a la tarea cognitiva, eliminando los efectos del ejercicio realizado. Las implicaciones de estos hallazgos son muy relevantes puesto que prueban que los resultados de los estudios realizados hasta el momento sobre los beneficios psicológicos de un solo período de ejercicio pueden no medir lo que pretenden, sino simplemente las respuestas afectivas y emocionales a la última experiencia o evento antes de responder el cuestionario que se suele aplicar. En resumen, la confiabilidad interna de estudios que emplean los protocolos pre- post en el análisis de la respuesta afectiva en condiciones de entrenamiento pueden ser cuestionable.

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Publicado
23-09-2021
Cómo citar
Laki, A., Ihász, F. ., de la Vega, R., Ruiz-Barquín, R., & Szabo, A. . (2021). Impacto de la ’última experiencia’ sobre el afecto después del ejercicio que alcanza el umbral anaeróbico: Una investigación de laboratorio. Cuadernos de Psicología del Deporte, 21(3), 16–31. https://doi.org/10.6018/cpd.469571
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Sección
Psicología del Deporte