Desajuste psicosocial en la adolescencia: socialización parental, autoestima y uso de sustancias

Autores/as

DOI: https://doi.org/10.6018/analesps.34.3.315201
Palabras clave: estilos de socialización, adolescencia temprana y tardía, desajuste psicosocial, autoestima, drogas

Resumen

Este estudio analiza la vulnerabilidad de los adolescentes a partir de la autoestima y el consumo de sustancias, y la protección o riesgo del estilo de socialización. La muestra fue de 1445 adolescentes españoles (59.4% mujeres), 600 tempranos de 12 a 15 años (41.5%) y 845 tardíos de 16 a 17 años (58.5%). Las familias se clasificaron en una de las cuatro tipologías: indulgente, autorizativa, autoritaria y negligente. El ajuste de los hijos se midió con autoestima (emocional, familiar y física) y consumo de sustancias (alcohol, tabaco, cannabis y drogas de síntesis). Los resultados mostraron que en la adolescencia tardía la vulnerabilidad fue mayor que en la temprana. Se encontró una interacción entre la etapa de la adolescencia y el sexo. Los adolescentes tardíos presentaron mayor consumo de sustancias (aunque no las adolescentes) en cannabis y drogas de síntesis. La menor autoestima emocional correspondió a las adolescentes tardías y la menor autoestima familiar a los adolescentes tardíos. El estilo parental no interactuó con la etapa de la adolescencia ni con el sexo. El estilo indulgente igualó, o incluso mejoró, la protección respecto del autorizativo, mientras que los estilos parentales autoritario y negligente actuaron como factores de riesgo.

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Publicado
01-08-2018
Cómo citar
Riquelme, M., Garcia, O. F., & Serra, E. (2018). Desajuste psicosocial en la adolescencia: socialización parental, autoestima y uso de sustancias. Anales de Psicología / Annals of Psychology, 34(3), 536-544. https://doi.org/10.6018/analesps.34.3.315201
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Sección
Psicología social y de las organizaciones