Assessment and promotion policies of entrepreneurship in students

  • Amparo Oliver Universidad de Valencia
  • Laura Galiana Universitat de València
  • Marta Gutiérrez-Benet Universitat de València
Keywords: Entrepreneurial attitude, European policies, educative intervention, employability, higher education and secondary school students.

Abstract

The increasing need for socio-economical and educative measures, targeting the development of an entrepreneurship culture, makes essential the accurate definition of the construct. This, together with a measure to provide a baseline of students’ entrepreneurship would facilitate the assessment of European and state government policies and interventions. The aim of the study is to provide an understanding of the entrepreneurial attitudes in the Spanish educative context, from which the implementation and assessment of entrepreneurship culture and education programs could be developed. 524 students (267 high school and 257 university students) answered the Entrepreneurship Attitudes Scale. Descriptive statistics and parametric and non-parametric multivariate analyses of variance were developed, including gender and educational stage as independent variables. Results showed differences between genders on some entrepreneurship dimensions, and also offered criteria values for future research and interventions in the field. Implications of this work are related to the current political context.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Amparo Oliver, Universidad de Valencia

Amparo Oliver, catedrática del Departamento de Metodología de las Ciencias del Comportamiento de la Universitat de València.

Laura Galiana, Universitat de València
Laura Galiana, becaria del VLC/Campus, subprograma Atracció de Talent (Universitat de València), en el Departamento de Metodología de las Ciencias del Comportamiento de la Universitat de València.
Marta Gutiérrez-Benet, Universitat de València
Marta Gutiérrez, licenciada en Ciencias Políticas por la Universitat de València, experta en políticas europeas.

References

Acs, Z. J., Arenius, P., Hay, M. y Minniti, M. (2005). Global Entrepreneurship Monitor 2004 executive report. Recuperado de: http://www.gemconsortium.org/docs/download/260.

Ajzen, I. (1991). The theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50, 179-211.

Almeida, P. I. L., Ahmetoglu, G., y Chamorro-Premuzic, T. (2014). Who wants to be an entrepreneur? The relationship between vocational interests and individual differences in entrepreneurship. Journal of Career Assessment, 22, 102-112.

Anderson, M. J. (2001). A new method for non-parametric multivariate analysis of variance. Austral Ecology, 26, 32-46.

Bird, B., Schjoedt, L. y Baum, J. R. (2012). Editor’s Introduction. Entrepreneurs’ Behavior: Elucidation and Measurement. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 36, 889-913.

Coduras, A. y Justo, R. (2003). Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM). In-forme ejecutivo 2002. España. Madrid: Instituto de Empresa.

Comisión Europea. (2003). Libro verde. El espíritu empresarial en Europa. Recuperado de: http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/site/es/com/2003/com2003_0027es01.pdf.

Comisión Europea. (2012a). Flash Eurobarometer 354. Entrepreneurship in the EU and beyond. Recuperado de: http://ec.europa.eu/public_opinion/flash/fl_354_en.pdf.

Comisión Europea. (2012b). Entrepreneurship Education at School in Europe National Strategies, Curricula and Learning Outcomes. Recuperado de: http://eacea.ec.europa.eu/education/eurydice/documents/thematic_reports/135EN.pdf.

Consejo de la Unión Europea. (2013). Recomendación del Consejo, de 22 de abril de 2013 sobre el establecimiento de la Garantía Juvenil (2013/C120/01). Recuperado de http://eurlex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:C2013:120:0001:0006:ES:PDF.

Copeland, E. P., y Hess, R. S. (1995). Differences in young adolescents’ coping strategies based on gender and ethnicity. The Journal of Early Adolescence, 15, 203-219.

Covin, J. G. y Slevin, D. P. (1989). Strategic management of small firms in hostile and benign environments. Strategic Management Journal, 10, 75-87.

Covin, J. G. y Wales, W. J. (2011). The Measurement of Entrepreneurial Orientation. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 35, 677-702.

Dess, G. G. y Lumpkin, G.T. (2001). Emerging issues in strategy process research. In M. A. Hitt, R. E. Freeman and j. S. Harrison (Eds.), Blackwell handbook of strategic management (pp. 3-34). Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishers Inc.

Douglas, E. J. y Shepherd, D. A. (2002). Self-Employment as a Career Choice: Attitudes, Entrepreneurial Intentions, and Utility Maximization. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 26(3), 81-90.

García-Montalvo, J. y Peiró, J. M. (2001). Capital Humano, el mercado laboral de los jóvenes: formación, transición y empleo. Valencia: Bancaja.

Hermansen-Kobulnicky, C J. y Moss, C. L. (2004). Pharmacy Student Entrepreneurial Orientation: A Measure to Identify Potential Pharmacist Entrepreneurs. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Educa-tion, 68(5), 1-10.

Huges, M. y Morgan, R. E. (2007). Deconstructing the relationship be-tween entrepreneurial orientation and business performance at the embryonic stage of firm growth. Industrial Marketing Manage-ment, 36, 651-661.

Katz, J. (2003). The chronology and intellectual trajectory of American entrepreneurship education 1876-1999. Journal of Business Venturing, 18(2), 283-300.

Kirzner, I. (1973). Competition and entrepreneurship. Chicago: Chicago University Press.

Kreiser, P. M., Marino, L. D. y Weaver, K. M. (2002). Assessing the Psy-chometric Properties of the Entrepreneurial Orientation Scale: A Multi-Country Analysis. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 27, 71-94.

Krueger, N. F., Jr., Reilly, M. D. y Carsrud, A. L. (2000). Competing models of entrepreneurial intentions. Journal of Business Venturing, 15, 411-432.

Ministerio de Sanidad, Servicios Sociales e Igualdad (2014). Estrategia Juventud 2020 y Plan de Acción 2014-2016. Recuperado de http://www.lamoncloa.gob.es/consejodeministros/referencias/documents/2014/refc20140912e_8.pdf.

Moriano, J. A., Palací, F. J. y Morales, F. (2006). El perfil psicosocial del emprendedor universitario. Revista de Psicología del Trabajo y de las Organizaciones, 22, 75-99.

Muñiz, J., Suárez-Álvarez, J., Pedrosa, I., Fonseca-Pedrero, E., y García-Cueto, E. (2014). Enterprising personality profile in youth: Components and assessment. Psicothema, 26, 545-553.

Oliver, A. y Galiana, L. (2015). Development and Validation of the Escala de Actitudes Emprendedoras para Estudiantes (EAEE). Spanish Journal of Psychology, 18, e14, 1–10. doi:10.1017/sjp.2015.14

Rauch, A., Wiklund, J., Lumpkin, G. T. y Frese, M. (2009). Entrepre-neurial orientation and business performance: An assessment of past research and suggestions for the future. Entrepreneurship Theory and Prac-tice, 33, 761-787.

Reynolds, P. D., Hay, M., Bygrave, W. D., Camp, S. M. y Autio, E. (2000). Global Entrepreneurship Monitor. 2000 executive report. Recuperado de: http://www.gemconsortium.org/docs/download/2408.

Shapero, A., y Sokol, L. (1982). En C. A. Kent, D. L. Sexton, y K. H. Ves-per (Eds.), The social dimensions of entrepreneurship. Encyclopedia of entrepreneurship (pp. 72-90). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc.

Tabachnick, G. G. y Fidell, L. S. (2007). Using Multivariate Statistics (6th Edition). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

Published
25-12-2015
How to Cite
Oliver, A., Galiana, L., & Gutiérrez-Benet, M. (2015). Assessment and promotion policies of entrepreneurship in students. Anales De Psicología / Annals of Psychology, 32(1), 183-189. https://doi.org/10.6018/analesps.32.1.186681
Section
Social Psychology