Señales de amenaza y sesgo atencional en lafobia a la sangre, inyecciones y heridasy en la fobia a las serpientes


  • Juan Pedro Sánchez-Navarro Universidad de Murcia; IMIB, Murcia Institute of Biomedical Research, Spain
  • José M. Martínez-Selva Universidad de Murcia; Universidad de Murcia; IMIB, Murcia Institute of Biomedical Research, Spain
  • Vladimir Kosonogov HSE University, Moscow, Russia
  • Eduvigis Carrillo-Verdejo Universidad de Murcia; Universidad de Murcia; IMIB, Murcia Institute of Biomedical Research, Spain
  • Sara Pineda Hospital Comarcal del Noroeste, Murcia, Spain
  • Ginesa Torrente University of Murcia; IMIB, Murcia Institute of Biomedical Research, Spain
Palabras clave: Sesgo atencional, Fobia a la sangre por lesión en inyección, Fobia a las serpientes, Emoción, Potenciales evocados, P200, P300


El objetivo de esta investigación fue estudiar el efecto de una señal que indica la aparición de una imagen fóbica sobre la actividad electrocortical provocada por el estímulo relevante para el trastorno en la fobia a la sangre por lesión en inyección (BII) y la fobia a las serpientes. Una muestra de 13 participantes con fobia BII, 12 individuos con fobia a las serpientes y 14 controles no fóbicos se sometieron a una tarea S1-S2, donde S1 era una palabra que describía el contenido de una imagen posterior (relacionada con la sangre, serpiente y neutral) que apareció 2 segundos después (S2). Obtuvimos las amplitudes ERP P200 y P300 provocadas por las imágenes. Nuestros resultados revelan que P200 no diferenciaba entre el contenido de las imágenes en la fobia BII mientras que, por el contrario, las imágenes relacionadas con la serpiente y la sangre provocaron las respuestas más grandes en los participantes con fobia a las serpientes. Tanto las imágenes relacionadas con la sangre como las de serpientes provocaron amplitudes de P300 mayores que las imágenes neutrales en todos los grupos. Las señales de amenaza redujeron la reacción electrocortical del BII, posiblemente por la provocación de respuestas anticipatorias o reguladoras. Estos resultados son indicativos de una baja atención automática exógena hacia los estímulos temidos en la fobia BII, como lo revela P200, probablemente relacionado con una falta de sesgo de atención al objeto fóbico.


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Cómo citar
Sánchez-Navarro, J. P., Martínez-Selva, J. M., Kosonogov, V., Carrillo-Verdejo, E., Pineda, S., & Torrente, G. (2021). Señales de amenaza y sesgo atencional en lafobia a la sangre, inyecciones y heridasy en la fobia a las serpientes. Anales de Psicología / Annals of Psychology, 37(3), 459–467.
Cerebro y conducta: un enfoque neurocientífico/psicofisiológico