A trial of a school-based cognitive behaviour program for anxiety on 4th Generation Immigrants

  • Cemaliye Direktör European University of Lefke
Keywords: Anxiety, 4th generation, immigrant, psycho-education, school-based


The purpose of the study in this direction is to examine the effectiveness of the school-based cognitive behaviour program on the reduction in anxiety levels of children at 9-10 years of age. An experimental pattern with pre-test/post-test control group was used in the research. The study was conducted on 36 participants who were divided into 3 groups of 12 pupils, one of which was experiment group and two of which were control groups. “Spence Children’s Anxiety Scale” was used in order to determine the anxiety level. The impact size has been determined as 56.3% for experiment group. The results of the study show that school-based cognitive behaviour program is effective.


Download data is not yet available.


Abbo, C., Kinyanda, E., Kizza, R.B., Levin, J., Ndyanabangi, S. and Stein, D.J. (2013). Prevalence, comorbidity and predictors of anxiety disorders in children and adolescents in rural north-eastern Uganda. Child and adolescent psychiatry and mental health, 7(1).

American Psychiatric Association. (2014). DSM-5 Diagnosis measures guide manual (translated by E. Köroğlu) Ankara: HYB Publications.

Beck, A. T., and Dozois, D. J. (2011). Cognitive therapy: current status and future directions. Annual review of medicine, 62, 397-409.

Ben-Ezra, M., Palgi, Y., Hamama-Raz, Y., and Shrira, A. (2015). Factors predicting risk for PTSD among highly exposed civilians: two longitudinal studies. Psychiatric Quarterly, 86(1), 19-32.

Chansky, T.E. (2009). Anxiety in Children. Translated by: Elvan Kandemir, Kuraldışı Publications: İstanbul.

Cohen, J. (1992). A power primer. Psychological bulletin, 112(1), 155-160.

Cohen, J. A., Mannarino, A. P., and Staron, V. R. (2006). A pilot study of modified cognitive-behavioural therapy for childhood traumatic grief (CBT-CTG). Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 45(12), 1465-1473.

de Groot, J., Cobham, V., Leong, J. and McDermott, B. (2007). Individual versus group family-focused cognitive-behaviour therapy for childhood anxiety: pilot randomized controlled trial. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 41(12):990-7.

Direktör, C., and Serin, N. B. (2017). Psychometric Properties of Spence Children’s Anxiety Scale (SCAS). Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education, 13(10), 6725-6736.

Essau, C. A., Muris, P. and Ederer, E. M. (2002). Reliability and validity of the ‘‘Spence Children’s Anxiety Scale’’ and the ‘‘Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders’’ in German children. Journal of Behaviour Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 33,1–18.

Essau, C. A., Sakano, Y., Ishikawa, S. and Sasagawa, S. (2004). Anxiety symptoms in Japanese and in German children. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 42,601–612.

Geroski, A.M. and Kraus, K.L. (2009). Groups in Schools: Preparing, Leading and Responding. USA: Pearson Education.

Giladi, L., and Bell, T. S. (2013). Protective factors for intergenerational transmission of trauma among second and third generation Holocaust survivors. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 5(4), 384.

Horowitz, R. (2017). Group counselling curriculum to address test anxiety for middle and high school students (Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Northridge).

Ishıkawa, S., Okajima, I., Matsvoka, H. and Sakano, Y. (2007). Cognitive Behavioural Therapy For Anxiety Disorders in Children and Adolescents: A Meta-Analysis. Child and Adolescent Mental Health, 12 (4), 164-172.

Juni, S. (2016). Second-generation Holocaust survivors: Psychological, theological, and moral challenges. Journal of Trauma and Dissociation, 17(1), 97-111.

Karakaya, E. and Öztop, D. B. (2013). Cognitive Behavioural Therapy in Children and Adolescents with Anxiety Disorder. Journal of Cognitive Behavioural Psycho-therapy and Research, 2, 10-24.

McMullen, J., O'callaghan, P., Shannon, C., Black, A., and Eakin, J. (2013). Group trauma‐focused cognitive‐behavioural therapy with former child soldiers and other war‐affected boys in the DR Congo: A randomised controlled trial. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 54(11), 1231-1241.

Miller, L. D., Laye-Gindhu, A., Bennett, J. L., Liu, Y., Gold, S., March, J. S., ... and Waechtler, V. E. (2011). An effectiveness study of a culturally enriched school-based CBT anxiety prevention program. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 40(4), 618-629.

Naeem, F., Gul, M., Irfan, M., Munshi, T., Asif, A., Rashid, S., ... and Farooq, S. (2015). Brief culturally adapted CBT (CaCBT) for depression: a randomized controlled trial from Pakistan. Journal of Affective Disorders, 177, 101-107.

Neil, A. L., and Christensen, H. (2009). Efficacy and effectiveness of school-based prevention and early intervention programs for anxiety. Clinical psychology review, 29(3), 208-215.

Rozenman, M., and Piacentini, J. (2016). Paediatric Primary Care as a Stepped Care Setting for Youth Anxiety: Commentary on “what Steps to Take? How to Approach Concerning Anxiety in Youth”. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 23(3), 230-233.

Sagi-Schwartz, A., van IJzendoorn, M. H., and Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J. (2008). Does intergenerational transmission of trauma skip a generation? No meta-analytic evidence for tertiary traumatization with third generation of Holocaust survivors. Attachment and human development, 10(2), 105-121.

Shaker-Naeeni, H., and Govender, T. (2014). Cognitive Behavioural Therapy for anxiety in children and adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder. British Journal of Medical Practitioners, 7(3).

Snyder, J., Bullard, L., Wagener, A., Leong, P. K., Snyder, J., and Jenkins, M. (2009). Childhood anxiety and depressive symptoms: Trajectories, relationship, and association with subsequent depression. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 38(6), 837-849.

Spence, S. H. (1998). A measure of anxiety symptoms among children. Behaviour research and therapy, 36(5), 545-566.

Spence, S. H., Barrett, P. M. and Turner, C. M. (2003). Psychometric properties of the Spence Children’s Anxiety Scale with young adolescents. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 17, 605–625.

Starman, H. (2006). Generations of trauma: Victimhood and the perpetuation of abuse in Holocaust survivors. History and Anthropology, 17(4), 327-338.

Şar, A.H., Barut, Y., and Koç, M. (2007). The impact of group psychological counselling based on cognitive behavioralist approach on dealing with late childhood (7-11 ages) depression. Sakarya University Journal of Education Sciences, (14).

Tutus, D., Pfeiffer, E., Rosner, R., Sachser, C., and Goldbeck, L. (2017). Sustainability of Treatment Effects of Trauma-focused Cognitive-behavioural Therapy for Children and Adolescents: Findings from 6-and 12-month Follow-ups. Psychotherapy and psychosomatics, 86(6), 379-381.

Van Ijzendoorn, M. H., Bakermans‐Kranenburg, M. J., and Sagi‐Schwartz, A. (2003). Are children of Holocaust survivors less well‐adapted? A meta‐analytic investigation of secondary traumatization. Journal of traumatic stress, 16(5), 459-469.

Volkan, V. D. (2009). Large-group identity: ‘Us and them ’polarizations in the international arena. Psychoanalysis, Culture and Society, 14(1), 4-15.

Volkan, V. (2008). Trauma, Identity and Search for a Solution in Cyprus. Insight Turkey, 10(4).

Volkan, V. D. (2001). Transgenerational transmissions and chosen traumas: An aspect of large-group identity. Group Analysis, 34(1), 79-97.

Yeo, L. S., Goh, V. G., and Liem, G. A. D. (2016, February). School-based intervention for test anxiety. In Child and Youth Care Forum (Vol. 45, No. 1, pp. 1-17). Springer US.

How to Cite
Direktör, C. (2019). A trial of a school-based cognitive behaviour program for anxiety on 4th Generation Immigrants. Anales De Psicología / Annals of Psychology, 35(3), 417-423. https://doi.org/10.6018/analesps.35.3.351351
Developmental and Educational Psychology