Are EFL Writers Motivated or Demotivated by Model Texts and Task Repetition? Evidence from Young Collaborative Writers
Studies on multi-stage writing tasks with adults and children have shown that model texts and task repetition aid language acquisition, especially when learners work in collaboration. However, these studies have not included measures of task motivation, which is vital in young learners (YLs) and could help develop a more comprehensive understanding of task effectiveness. The present study analyses task motivation in 24 EFL YLs writing in pairs during three sessions divided into a model group (MG) and a task repetition group (TRG). Results show that students’ task motivation is high in general but declines in the MG while it is maintained in the TRG. As for the motives, working together is the main reason students give to justify their positive scores. These results complete previous knowledge about models and TR, reinforce the value of collaborative writing and encourage the inclusion of motivation measures in task-based research.
Al Khalil, M.K. (2011). Second language motivation: its relationship to noticing, affect, and production in task-based interaction. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Georgetown University, USA.
Al Khalil, M. K. (2016). Insights from measurement of task-related motivation. In A. Mackey & E. Marsden (Eds.), Advancing Methodology and Practice: The IRIS Repository of Instruments for Research into Second Languages (pp. 243–262). New York & London: Routledge.
Amelohina, V., Nicolás-Conesa, F., & Manchón, R. M. (2020). Effects of task repetition with the aid of direct and indirect written corrective feedback. In R. Manchón (Ed.), Writing and Language Learning: Advancing Research Agendas (pp. 145–182). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Amiryousefi, M. (2016). Homework: Voices from EFL teachers and learners. Iranian Journal of Language Teaching Research, 4(2), 35–54. https://dx.doi.org/10.30466/ijltr.2016.20364
Azkarai A. & García Mayo, M. P. (2016). Task repetition effects on L1 use in EFL child task-based interaction. Language Teaching Research, 21(4), 480–495. https://dx.doi:10.1177/1362168816654169
Azkarai, A. & Kopinska, M. (2020). Young EFL learners and collaborative writing: a study on patterns of interaction, engagement in LREs, and task motivation. System, 94, 102338. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2020.102338
Bui, G., Ahmadian, M. J., & Hunter, A.-M. (2018). Spacing effects on repeated L2 task performance. System, 81, 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2018.12.006.
Bygate, M. (1996). Effects of task repetition: Appraising the developing language of learners. In J. Willis & D. Willis (Eds.), Challenge and change in Language Teaching (pp. 136–146). Oxford: Macmillan Heinemann.
Bygate, M. & Samuda, V. (2005). Integrative planning through the use of task repetition. In R. Ellis (Ed.), Planning and Task Performance in a Second Language (pp. 37–74). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Calzada, A. & García Mayo, M. P. (2020). Child EFL learners’ attitudes towards a collaborative writing task: An exploratory study. Language Teaching for Young Learners, 2(1), 52–72. https://doi.org/10.1075/ltyl.19008.cal
Cánovas Guirao, J., Roca de Larios, J., & Coyle, Y. (2015). The use of models as a written feedback technique with young EFL learners. System, 52, 63–77. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2015.04.002
Coyle, Y. & Cánovas Guirao, J. (2019). Learning to write in a second language: The role of guided interaction in promoting children’s noticing from model texts. CLIL Journal of Innovation and Research in Plurilingual and Pluricultural Education, 1(2), 21–30.
Coyle, Y. & Roca de Larios, J. (2014). Exploring the role played by error correction and models on children’s reported noticing and output production in a L2 writing task. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 36, 451–485. https://dx.doi:10.1017/S0272263113000612
Coyle, Y. & Roca de Larios, J. (2020). Exploring young learners’ engagement with models as a written corrective technique in EFL and CLIL settings. System, 95, 102374. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2020.102374
Coyle, Y., Cánovas Guirao, J., & Roca de Larios, J. (2018). Identifying the trajectories of young EFL learners across multi-stage writing and feedback processing tasks with model texts. Journal of second language writing, 42, 25–43.
Dörnyei, Z. (2002). The motivational basis of language learning tasks. In P. Robinson (Ed.), Individual Differences and Instructed Language Learning (pp. 137–158). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Reprinted in: K. Van den Branden, M. Bygate, & J. M. Norris (Eds.), Task-Based Language Teaching: A Reader (pp. 357–377). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Dörnyei, Z. (2009). The Psychology of Second Language Acquisition. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Dörnyei, Z. (2019). What makes an L2 task engaging? In E. Zhisheng & M. J. Ahmadian (Eds.), Researching L2 Task Performance and Pedagogy: In Honour of Peter Skehan (pp. 53–66). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Dörnyei, Z. (2020). From integrative motivation to directed motivational currents: The evolution of the understanding of L2 motivation over three decades. In M. Lamb, K. Csizér, A. Henry, & S. Ryan (Eds.), Palgrave Macmillan Handbook of Motivation for Language Learning (pp. 39–69). Basingstoke: Palgrave.
Dörnyei, Z. & Kormos, J. (2000). The role of individual and social variables in oral task performance. Language Teaching Research, 4(3), 275–300. https://doi.org/10.1177/136216880000400305
Ellis, R. (2009). The differential effects of three types of task planning on the fluency, complexity, and accuracy in L2 oral production. Applied Linguistics, 30, 474–509. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/applin/amp042
Enever, J. (2018). Policy and Politics in Global Primary English. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Fernández Dobao, A. (2012). Collaborative writing tasks in the L2 classroom: Comparing group, pair, and individual work. Journal of Second Language Writing, 21(1), 40–58. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jslw.2011.12.002
Ferris, D. & Hedgcock, J. (2014). Teaching L2 Composition. Purpose, Process, and Practice. (3rd ed.). New York/London: Routledge/Taylor & Francis.
García Mayo, M. P. (2018). Child task-supported interaction in the Spanish EFL setting. Research and challenges. International journal of English studies, 18(2), 119–143. https://doi.org/10.6018/ijes/2018/2/319731
García Mayo, M. P. & Loidi Labandibar, U. (2017). The Use of Models as Written Corrective Feedback in English as a Foreign Language (EFL)Writing. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 37, 110–127. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0267190517000071
Hanaoka, O. (2007). Output, noticing, and learning: An investigation into the role of spontaneous attention to form in a four-stage writing task. Language Teaching Research, 11(4), 459–479. https://doi.org/10.1177/1362168807080963.
Hanaoka, O. & Izumi, S. (2012). Noticing and uptake: Addressing pre-articulated covert problems in L2 writing. Journal of Second Language Writing, 21(4), 332–347. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jslw.2012.09.008
Hawkes, M.L. (2009). Effects of Task Repetition on Learner Motivation. In A.M. Stoke (Ed.), JALT2009 Conference Proceedings (pp. 456–465). Tokyo: JALT.
Hidalgo, M. Á. & Lázaro-Ibarrola, A. (2020). Task repetition and collaborative writing by EFL children: Beyond CAF measures. Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching, 10(3), 501522. https://doi.org/10.14746/ssllt.2020.10.3.5
Imaz Agirre, A. & García Mayo, M.P. (2020). The impact of agency in pair formation on the degree of participation in young learners’ collaborative dialogue. In C. Lambert & R. Oliver (Eds.), Using Tasks in Second Language Teaching: Practice in Diverse Contexts (pp. 306–323). Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
Julkunen, K. (2001). Situation- and task-specific motivation in foreign language learning. In Z. Dörnyei & R. Schmidt (Eds.), Motivation and Second Language Acquisition (pp. 29–42). Honolulu, HI: University of Hawaii Press.
Kang, E. Y. (2020). Using model texts as a form of feedback in L2 writing. System, 89, 102196. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2019.102196
Kim, J. H. (2015). The role of models and error correction in L2 young learners’ noticing and output. English Teaching, 70(2), 3–26. https://doi.org/10.15858/engtea.70.2.201506.3
Kim, J. & Nassaji, H. (2018). Incidental focus on form and the role of learner extraversion. Language Teaching Research, 22(6), 698–718. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F1362168817699642
Kim, Y., Choi, B., Yun, H., Kim, B. & Choi, S. (2020). Task repetition, synchronous written corrective feedback and the learning of Korean grammar: A classroom-based study. Language Teaching Research. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F1362168820912354
Kim, Y., Kang, S., Yun, H., Kim, B., & Choi, B. (2020). The role of task repetition in a Korean as a foreign language classroom: Writing quality, attention to form, and learning of Korean grammar. Foreign Language Annals, 53(4), 827–849. https://doi.org/10.1111/flan.12501
Kiss, C. & Nikolov, M. (2005). Developing, piloting, and validating an instrument to measure young learners’ aptitude. Language Learning, 55(1), 99–150. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0023-8333.2005.00291.x
Kopinska, M. & Azkarai, A. (2020). Exploring young EFL learners’ motivation: Individual versus pair work on dictogloss tasks. Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching, 10(3), 607–630. https://doi.org/10.14746/ssllt.2020.10.3.10
Kormos, J. & Dörnyei, Z. (2004). The interaction of linguistic and motivational variables in second language task performance. Zeitschrift für interkulturellen Fremdsprachenunterricht, 9(2), 19.
Lázaro-Ibarrola, A. (2021). Model texts in collaborative and individual writing among EFL children: noticing, incorporations, and draft quality. International Review of Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching, 000010151520200160. https://doi.org/10.1515/iral-2020-0160
Lázaro-Ibarrola, A. & Hidalgo, M. Á. (2021). Give me a second chance: Task repetition and collaborative writing with child EFL learners. Language Teaching for Young Learners, 3(2), 275−299. https://doi.org/10.1075/ltyl.20009.laz
Lázaro-Ibarrola, A. & Hidalgo, M. Á. (2017). Procedural repetition in task-based interaction among young EFL learners: Does it make a difference? ITL-International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 168(2), 183−202. http://dx.doi.org/10.1075/itl.16024.laz
Luquin, M. & García Mayo, M. P. (2020). Collaborative writing and feedback: An exploratory study of the potential of models in primary EFL students’ writing performance. Language Teaching for Young Learners, 2(1), 73–100. https://doi.org/10.1075/ltyl.19007.luq
Luquin, M. & García Mayo, M. P. (2021). Exploring the use of models as a written corrective feedback technique among EFL children. System, 98. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2021.102465
McCargar, D. F. (1993). Teacher and student role expec-tations: Cross-cultural differences and implications. Modern Language Journal, 77(2), 192–207. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.1993.tb01963.x
MacIntyre, P. D. & Serroul, A. (2014). Motivation on a per-second timescale: Examining approach–avoidance motivation during L2 task performance. In M. Kruk & M. Mahmoodzadeh (Eds.), Motivational Dynamics in Language Learning (pp. 109–138). Clevedon: Multilingual Matters. https://doi.org/10.21832/9781783092574-013
Manchón, R. M. (2014a). The distinctive nature of task repetition in writing. Implications for theory, research, and pedagogy. Estudios de Lingüística Inglesa Aplicada ELIA, 14(13), 13–41. http://dx.doi.org/10.12795/elia.2014.i14.02
Manchón, R. M. (2014b). The internal dimension of tasks. In H. Byrnes & R. M. Manchón (Eds.), Task-Based Language Learning: Insights from and for L2 Writing (pp. 27–52). Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company. https://doi.org/10.1075/tblt.7.02man
Muñoz, C. (2014). Exploring Young Learners’ Foreign Language Learning Awareness. Language Awareness, 23(1-2), 24–40. https://doi.org/10.1080/09658416.2013
Muñoz, C. (2017). The development of language awareness at the transition from primary to secondary school. In M. P. García Mayo (Ed.), Learning Foreign Languages in Primary School: Research Insights (pp. 49–68). Bristol: Multilingual Matters.
Nikolov, M. (1999). ‘Why do you learn English?’ ‘Because the teacher is short.’ A study of Hungarian children’s foreign language learning motivation. Language Teaching Research, 3(1), 33–56. http://dx.doi.org/10.1191/136216899670790538
Nitta, R. & Baba, K. (2014). Task repetition and L2 writing development. In R. Manchón & H. Byrnes, (Eds.), Task-Based Language Learning: Insights from and for L2 Writing (pp. 107–136). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Poupore. (2013). Task motivation in process: A complex systems perspective. The Canadian modern language review/La Revue canadienne des langues vivantes, 69(1), 91–116 http://dx.doi:10.3138/cmlr.1139
Robinson, P. (2011). Task‐based language learning: A review of issues. Language Learning, 61(1), 1–36. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9922.2011.00641.x
Samuda, V. & Bygate, M. (2008). Tasks in Second Language Learning. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
Sánchez, A. J. (2018). External task-repetition: The role of modality, written corrective feedback and proficiency: A comparative study. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Murcia, Spain.
Sánchez, A. J., Manchón, R. M., & Gilabert, R. (2020). The effects of task repetition across modalities and proficiency levels. In R. Manchón (Ed.), Writing and Language Learning: Advancing Research Agendas (pp. 121–144). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Schulz, R. A. (2001). Cultural differences in student and teacher perceptions concerning the role of grammar instruction and corrective feedback: USA‐Colombia. The Modern Language Journal, 85(2), 244–258.
Storch, N. (2013). Collaborative Writing in L2 Classrooms (Vol. 31). Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
Storch, N. (2011). Collaborative writing in L2 contexts: Processes, outcomes, and future directions. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 31, 275–288. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0267190511000079
Storch, N. (2005). Collaborative writing: Product, process, and students’ reflections. Journal of Second Language Writing, 14(3), 153–173. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jslw.2005.05.002
Storch, N. (1999) Are two heads better than one? Pair work and grammatical accuracy. System, 27, 363–74. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0346-251X(99)00031-7
Ushioda, E. (2001). Language learning at university: Exploring the role of motivational thinking. In Z. Dörnyei & R. W. Schmidt (Eds.), Motivation and Second Language Acquisition (pp. 93–125). Honolulu, HI: University of Hawaii, Second Language Teaching Center.
Villarreal, I. & Munarriz-Ibarrola, M. (2021). “Together we do better”: The effect of pair and group work on young EFL learners’ written texts and attitudes. In M. P. García Mayo (Ed.), Working Collaboratively in Second/Foreign Language Learning (pp. 89–116). Boston/Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton.
Wigglesworth, G. & Storch, N. (2009). Pair versus individual writing: Effects on fluency, complexity and accuracy. Language Testing, 26(3), 445–466. https://doi.org/10.1177/0265532209104670
Yang, L. & Zhang, L. (2010). Exploring the role of reformulations and a model text in EFL students’ writing performance. Language Teaching Research, 14(4), 464–484. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F1362168810375369
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
The works published in this journal are subject to the following terms:
1. The Publications Services at the University of Murcia (the publisher) retains the property rights (copyright) of published works, and encourages and enables the reuse of the same under the license specified in item 2.
2. The works are published in the electronic edition of the magazine under a Creative Commons Attribution Non-commercial Share Alike 4.0.
3.Conditions of self-archiving. Authors are encouraged to disseminate pre-print (draft papers prior to being assessed) and/or post-print versions (those reviewed and accepted for publication) of their papers before publication, because it encourages distribution earlier and thus leads to a possible increase in citations and circulation among the academic community.
RoMEO color: green