Pathways from Positive and Negative Affect to Depressive Symptoms: Multiple Mediation of Emotion Regulation Strategies
AbstractThe current study aims to examine the multiple mediations of emotion regulation strategies in the relationship between positive and negative affect and depressive symptoms in adolescents. Participants included 290 students attending middle schools in a mid-size city in Southeastern Anatolian region. Among students, 137 were females (47.2%) and 153 (52.8%) were males. Participants’ ages ranged between 9 and 15 with a mean of 12.12, SD=1.53. Research data were collected through Positive and Negative Affect Schedule for Adolescents, Emotion Regulation Scale for Adolescents, and Depression Scale for Children. Data analysis was conducted through descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation coefficient, an approach based on Ordinary Least Squares Regression, and Bootstrap method. Research findings indicated that the mediation of external dysfunctional emotion regulation, internal dysfunctional emotion regulation, and external functional emotion regulation in the relationships between positive emotions and depressive symptoms was statistically significant. However, the mediation of internal functional emotion regulation was not found to be statistically significant. In the relationship between negative emotions and depressive symptoms, the mediation of internal dysfunctional emotion regulation and external functional emotion regulation was found to be statistically significant. In addition, the mediation of internal functional emotion regulation and external dysfunctional emotion regulation was not found statistically significant. Research findings were discussed based on the relevant literature and some suggestions for researchers were put forward.
Anderson, C. A., Miller, R. S., Riger, A. L., Dill, J. C., & Sedikides, C. (1994). Behavioral and characterological styles as predictors of depression and loneliness: review, refinement, and test. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 66, 549-558. doi: 10.1037/0022-35126.96.36.1999.
Arditte, K., & Joorman, J. (2011). Emotion regulation in depression: reflection predicts recovery from a major depressive episode. Cognition and Emotion, 31, 2276–2388. doi: 10.1007/s10608-011-9389-4.
Barlow, D. H., Allen, L. B., & Choate, M. L. (2004). Toward a unified treatment for emotional disorders. Behavior Therapy, 35(2), 205–230. doi: 0.1016/j.beth.2015.07.002.
Campbell-Sills, L., Barlow, D. H., Brown, T.A., & Hofmann, S. G. (2006). Effects of suppression and acceptance on emotional responses of individuals with anxiety and mood disorders. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 44, 1251-1263. doi: 10.1016/j.brat.2005.10.001.
Cohen, L., Manion, L., & Morrison, K. (2007). Research methods in education (Sixth edition.). London: Routledge.
Collins, A., & Miller, L. C. (1994). Self-disclosure and liking: A meta-analytic review. Psychological Bulletin, 116, 457-475. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.116.3.457.
Compare, A., Zarbo, C., Shonin, E., Van Gordon, W., & Marconi, C. (2014). Emotional regulation and depression: A potential mediator between heart and mind. Cardiovascular Psychiatry and Neurology, 1-11. doi: 10.1155/2014/324374.
Duy, B., & Yıldız, M. A. (2014). Ergenler için duygu düzenleme ölçeğinin Türkçe’ye uyarlanması [Adaptation of the Regulation of Emotions Questionnaire (REQ) for Adolescents]. Türk Psikolojik Danışma ve Rehberlik Dergisi, 5(41), 23-35.
Duy, B., & Yıldız, M. A. (2013). Ergenlerde duygu düzenlemenin yordayıcısı olarak cinsiyet, depresif belirtiler ve psikosomatik belirtilerin incelenmesi [Investigating predictive role of gender, depressive symptoms and psycho-somatic symptoms in emotion regulation of adolescents]. (pp. 249-251). İstanbul 2013 Dünya Psikolojik Danışma ve Rehberlik Kongresi, 8-11 Eylül 2013, Boğazici University, İstanbul.
Evans, D. W. (1994). Self-complexity and its relation to development, symptomatology and self-perception during adolescence. Child Psychiatry Human Development, 24, 173-182. doi: 10.1007/BF02353194.
Garnefski, N., Kommer, T. V. D., Kraaij, V., Teerds, J., Legers-tee, J., & Onstein, E. (2002). The relationship between cognitive emotion regulation strategies and emotional problems: comparison between a clinical and a non-clinical sample. European Journal of Personality, 16, 403-420. doi: 10.1002/per.458.
Garnefski, N., Kraaij, V., & Van Etten, M. (2005). Specificity of relations between adolescents’ cognitive emotion regulation strategies and internalizing and externalizing psychopathology. Journal of Adolescence, 28, 619-631. doi: 10.1016/j.adolescence.2004.12.009.
Gross, J. J. (1998). The emerging field of emotion regulation: An integrative review. Review of General Psychology, 2(3), 271-299. doi: 10.1037/1089-26188.8.131.521.
Gross, J. J. (1999). Emotion regulation: Past, present, future. Cognition and Emotion, 13(5), 551-573. doi: 10.1080/026999399379186.
Gross, J. J. (2002). Emotion regulation: Affective, cognitive, and social consequences. Psychophysiology, 39, 281–291. doi: 10.1017.S0048577201393198.
Gross, J. J. (2008). Emotion regulation. In M. Lewis, J. M. Haviland-Jones & L. F. Barrett (Eds.), Handbook of emotions. (3rd ed.), (pp. 497–512). New York: Guilford Press.
Gross, J. J., & John, O. P. (2003). Individual differences in two emotion regulation processes: Implications for affect, relationships, and well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85, 348–362. doi: 10.1037/0022-35184.108.40.2068. 348.
Gross, J. J., Richards, J. M., & John, O. P. (2006). Emotion regulation in everyday life. In. D. K. Snyder, J. A. Simpson & J. H. Hughes (Eds.), Emotion regulation in couples and families: Pathways to dysfunction and health. (pp. 13-35). Washington DC: American Psychological Association.
Hayes, A. F. (2013). Introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis: A regression-based approach. New York: Guilford Press.
Hayes, A. F. (2016). The PROCESS macro for SPSS and SAS. Retrieved December 2016, http://www.processmacro.org/download.html
Heppner, P. P., Wampold, B. E., & Kivlighan, D. M., Jr. (2013). Psikolojik danışmada araştırma yöntemleri [Research Methods in Counseling] (D. M. Siyez, Çev.) (1. bs.). Ankara: Mentis Yayıncılık.
John, O. P., & Gross, J. J. (2004). Healthy and unhealthy emotion regulation: Personality processes, individual differences, and life span development. Journal of Personality, 72(6), 1301-1333. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-6494.2004.00298.x.
Katz, I. M., & Campbell, J. D. (1994). Ambivalence over emotional expression and wellbeing: Nomethetic and ideographic tests of the stress buffering hypothesis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67, 513–524. doi: 10.1037/0022-35220.127.116.113.
Kenndy-Moore, E., & Watson, J. C. (2001). How and when does emotional expression help? Review of General Psychology, 5,187-212. doi: 10.1037//1089-2618.104.22.168.
Koole, S. L. (2009). The psychology of emotion regulation: An integrative review. Cognition and Emotion, 23(1), 4-41. doi: 10.1080/02699930802619031.
Kovacs, M. (1981). Rating Scale to assess depression in school aged children. Acta Paedopsychiatrica, 46, 305-315. doi: 10.11919/j.issn.1002-0829.215115.
Kubany, E. S., Haynes, S. N., Abueg, F. R., Manke, F. P., Brennan, J. M., & Stahura, C. (1996). Development and validation of the trauma-related guilt inventory (TRGI). Psychological Assessment, 80, 428–444. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/1040-3522.214.171.1248.
Larson, R., & Asmussen, L. (1991). Anger, worry, and hurt in early adolescence: An enlarging world of negative emotions. (Ed: M. E. Colten & S. Gore) Adolescent stress: Causes and Consequences. New York: Aldine de Gruyter.
Larson, R., & Lampman-Petraitis, C. (1989). Daily emotional states as reported by children and adolescents. Child Development, 60(5), 1250-1260. doi: 0.1111/j.1467-8624.1989.tb03555.x
Lepore, S. J., Ragan, J., & Jones, S. (2000). Talking facilitates cognitive-emotional processes of adaptation to an acute stressor. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78, 499-509. doi: 10.1037//0022-35126.96.36.1999.
Leue, A., & Lange, S. (2011). Reliability generalization: An examination of the positive affect and negative affect schedule. Assessment, 18, 487-501. doi: 10.1177/1073191110374917.
Martin, R. C., & Dahlen, E. R. (2005). Cognitive emotion regulation in the prediction of depression, anxiety, stress, and anger. Personality and Individual Differences, 39, 1249–1260. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2005.06.004.
McLaughlin, K. A., Hatzenbuehler, M. L., Mennin, D. S., & Nolen-Hoeksama, S. (2012). Emotion dysregulation and adolescent psychopathology: A prospective study. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 49(9), 1-11. doi: 10.1016/j.brat.2011.06.003.
Mennin, D. S. (2006). Emotion regulation therapy: an integrative approach to treatment-resistant anxiety disorders. Journal of Contemporary Psychotherapy, 36(2), 95–105. doi: 10.1007/s10879-006-9012-2.
Minton, S. J., & Minton, P. (July, 2004). An application of certain phenomenological / existential perspectives in understanding the bully-victim cycle. Existential Analysis, 15(2), 230-242.
Morrison, J. (2016). DSM-5 i Kolaylaştıran klinisyenler için tanı rehberi (Çev. Ed. M. Sahin ve Hanife Uğur Kural), (1. Basım). [Made easy the clinician’s guide to diagnosis] Ankara: Nobel Yayıncılık.
National Institutes of Health (2016). Depression. Retrieved February 2017, from https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/topics/depression/index.shtml
Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (2000). Growth and resilience among bereaved people. In J. Gillham (Ed.), Dimensions of optimism and hope. (pp. 107-128). Philadelphia: Templeton Foundation Press.
Nolen-Hoeksema, S., Stice, E., Wade, E., & Bohon, C. (2007). Reciprocal relations between rumination and bulimic, substance abuse, and depressive symptoms in adolescent females. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 116, 198-207. doi: 10.1037/0021-843X.116.1.198.
Öy, B. (1991). Çocuklar için depresyon ölçeği: Geçerlik ve güvenirlik çalışması. [Depression scale for children: reliability and validity studies]. Türk Psikiyatri Dergisi, 2,132-137.
Pace, B. (April, 2001). Bullying. JAMA, 285(16), 2158-2159. doi: 10.1001/jama.285.16.2094.
Phillips, K. F. V., & Power, M. J. (2007). A new self-report measure of emotion regulation in adolescents: The regulation of emotions questionnaire. Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, 14, 145-156. doi: 10.1002/cpp.523.
Siener, S., & Kerns, K. A. (2012). Emotion regulation and depressive symptoms in preadolescence. Child Psychiatry Human Development, 43(4), 414-430. doi: 10.1007/s10578-011-0274-x.
Singer, A.R., & Dodson, K. S. (2007). An experimental investigation of the cognitive vulnerability to depression. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 45(3), 563-575. doi: 10.1016/j.brat.2006.05.007.
Smith, J. M., & Alloy L. B. (2009). A roadmap to rumination: a review of the definition, assessment, and conceptualization of this multifaceted construct. Clinical Psychology Review, 29(2), 116–128. doi: 10.1016/j.cpr.2008.10.003.
Türkiye İstatistik Kurumu (2013). İstatistiklerle Gençlik Haber Bülteni. Retrieved February 2017, from http://www.tuik.gov.tr/PreHaberBultenleri.do?id=16055.
Verzeletti, C., Zammuner, V. L., Galli, C., & Agnoli, S. (2016). Emotion regulation strategies and psychosocial well-being in adolescence. Cogent Psychology, 3(1199294), 1-15. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23311908.2016.
World Health Organization (2014). Depression. Retrieved February 2017, from http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs369/en/.
World Health Organization (2015). Depression. Retrieved January 2017, from http://www.euro.who.int/en/countries/turkey.
Yıldız, M. A. (2014). Ergenlerde anne-babaya bağlanma ile öznel iyi oluş arasındaki ilişkide duygu düzenleme ve baş etme yöntemlerinin çoklu aracılık rolü [The multiple mediating role of emotion regulation and coping strategies on the relationship between parental attachment and subjective wellbeing in adolescents]. Doctoral dissertation, Mersin University, Mersin, Turkey.
Yıldız, M. A. (2016). Multiple mediation of emotion regulation strategies in the relationship between loneliness and positivity in adolescents. Education and Science, 186, 217-231. doi: 10.15390/EB.2016.6193
Zech, E. (1998). Is it helpful to verbalize ones emotions? Gedrag and Gezondheid, 27, 42–47. doi: 10.1007/bf01173204.
The works published in this journal are subject to the following terms:
1. The Publications Service of the University of Murcia (the publisher) retains the property rights (copyright) of published works, and encourages and enables the reuse of the same under the license specified in paragraph 2.
2. The works are published in the online edition of the journal under a Creative Commons Reconocimiento-CompartirIgual 4.0 (legal text). You can copy, use, distribute, transmit and publicly display, provided that: i) you cite the author and the original source of publication (journal, editorial and URL of the work), ii) are not used for commercial purposes, iii ) mentions the existence and specifications of this license.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
3. Conditions of self-archiving. Is allowed and encouraged the authors to disseminate electronically pre-print versions (version before being evaluated and sent to the journal) and / or post-print (version reviewed and accepted for publication) of their works before publication, as it encourages its earliest circulation and diffusion and thus a possible increase in its citation and scope between the academic community. RoMEO Color: Green.