Sexual satisfaction among young women: The frequency of sexual activities as a mediator.
The aim of this study is to analyze the relationship among several social-cognitive predictors of sexual behavior (beliefs, knowledge, attitudes and values), sexual behaviors, the frequency of sexual activities and different dimensions of sexual satisfaction (individual/with the partner and current/desired). A mixed-method study was conducted. The data were collected using a semi-structured interview specially designed for this study, which was administered to 14 to 20 years old young women. Correlation analyses revealed that the expected direct associations between the explored social-cognitive predictors, sexual behavior and sexual satisfaction were not established, so we examined possible indirect effects. The results of the mediational model that better fitted the data indicated that sexual behavior is related with (current) sexual satisfaction, not only directly but also indirectly, through the frequency of sexual activities in a (probable) effect of partial mediation. These findings have interesting applications in terms of sexual education and sexual health promotion among young women.
Awotidebe, A., Phillips, J. y Lens, W. (2014). Factors contributing to the risk of HIV infection in rural school-going adolescents. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 11(11), 11.805-11.821. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph111111805.
Babin, B. A. (2012). An examination of predictors of nonverbal and verbal communication of pleasure during sex and sexual satisfaction. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 30(3), 270-292. doi: 10.1177/0265407512454523.
Bahamón Muñetón, M. J., Vianchá Pinzón, M. A. y Tobos Vergara, A. R. (2014). Prácticas y conductas sexuales de riesgo en jóvenes. Una perspectiva de género. Psicología desde el Caribe, 31(2), 327-353. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.14482/psdc.31.2.3070.
Baron, R. M. y Kenny, D. A. (1986). The moderator-mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51, 1.173-1.182. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-35184.108.40.2063
Bass, T. M. (2016). Exploring female sexuality: Embracing the whole narrative. North Carolina Medical Journal, 77(6), 430-432. doi:10.18043/ncm.77.6.430
Blair, K. L. y Pukall, C. F. (2014). Can less be more? Comparing duration vs. frequency of sexual encounters in same-sex and mixed-sex relationships. The Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality, 23(2), 123-136. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.3138/cjhs.2393
Brassard, A., Dupuy, E., Bergeron, S. y Shaver, P. R. (2015). Attachment insecurities and women's sexual function and satisfaction: The mediating roles of sexual self-esteem, sexual anxiety, and sexual assertiveness. Journal of Sex Research, 51(1), 110-119. doi: 10.1080/00224499.2013.838744.
Bridges, S. K., Lease, S. H. y Ellison, C. R. (2004). Predicting sexual satisfaction in women: Implications for counselor education and training. Journal of Couseling and Development, 82, 158-166. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/j.1556-6678.2004.tb00297.x
Carrobles, J. A., Gámez-Guadix, M. y Almendros, C. (2011). Funcionamiento sexual, satisfacción sexual y bienestar psicológico y subjetivo en una muestra de mujeres españolas. Anales de Psicología 27(1), 27-34.
Cheung, M. W. (2009). Comparison of methods for constructing confidence intervals of standardized indirect effects. Behavior Research Methods, 41(2), 425-438. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/BRM.41.2.425.
Christopher, S. F. y Sprecher, S. (2000). Sexuality in marriage, dating, and other relationships: A decade review. Journal of Marriage and Family, 62, 999-1017. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1741-3737.2000.00999x.
Dures, E., Rumsey, N., Morris, M. y Gleeson, K. (2010). Mixed methods in health psychology: Theoretical and practical considerations of the third paradigm. Journal of Health Psychology, 14, 1-10. doi: 10.1177/1359105310377537.
Espada, J. P., Morales, A., Orgilés, M., Piqueras, A y Carballo, J. L. (2013). Comportamiento sexual bajo la influencia del alcohol en adolescentes españoles. Adicciones, 25(1), 55-62.
Gavey, N. (2012). Beyond "empowerment"? sexuality in a sexist world. Sex Roles,66 (11-12), 718-724. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11199-011-0069-3.
Haavio-Manila, E. y Kontula, O. (1997). Correlates of increased sexual satisfaction. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 26(4), 399-419.
Hayes, A. F. (2009). Beyond Baron and Kenny: Statistical mediation analysis in the new millennium. Communication Monographs, 76, 408-420. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03637750903310360.
Hayes, A. F. (2012). PROCESS: A versatile computational tool for observed variable mediation, moderation, and conditional process modeling. Recuperado de http://www.afhayes.com/public/process2012.pdf.
Hayes, A. F. (2013). Introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis: A regression-based approach. New York: Guilford Press.
Heiman, J. R., Long, J. S., Smith, S. N., Fisher, W. A., Sand, M. S., y Rosen, R. C. (2011). Sexual satisfaction and relationship happiness in midlife and older couples in five countries. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 40, 741–753. doi: 10.1007/s10508-010-9703-3.
Hughes, S. M., y Kruger, D. J. (2011). Sex differences in post-coital behaviors in long-and short-term mating: An evolutionary perspective. Journal of Sex Research, 48, 496-505. doi: 10.1080/00224499.2010.501915.
Johnson, R. B., Ongwuegbuzie, A. J. y Turner, L. A. (2007). Toward a definition of mixed methods research. Journal of Mixed Methods Research, 1, 112-133, doi: 10.1177/1558689806298224.
Kaptanoğlu, A. F., Süer, K., Diktaş, H. y Hɪnçal, E. (2013). Knowledge, attitudes and behaviour towards sexually transmitted diseases in Turkish Cypriot adolescents. Central European Journal of Public Health, 21(1), 54-58.
Khoury, C. B. y Findlay, B. M. (2014). What makes of good sex? The associations among attachment style, inhibited communication and sexual satisfaction. Journal of Relationships Research, 5(7), 1-11. doi: 10.1017/jrr.2014.7.
Kruger, D. J., y Hughes, S. (2010). Variation in reproductive strategies influences post-coital experiences with partners. Journal of Social, Evolutionary, and Cultural Psychology, 4, 254–264. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0099285.
Kumsa, D. M. (2015). Factors affecting the sexual behavior of youth and adolescent in Jimma town, Ethiopia. European Scientific Journal, 11(32) Recuperado de http://search.proquest.com/docview/1750933968?accountid=14542.
Lamb, S. (2010). Feminist ideals for a healthy female adolescent sexuality: A critique. Sex Roles, 62(5-6), 294-306. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11199-009-9698-1.
Laumann, E. O., Gagnon, H. J., Michael, R. T.y Michaels, S. (1994). The social organization of sexuality: Sexual practices in the United States. Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press.
Lemer, J. L., Blodgett Salafia, E. H. y Benson, K. E. (2013) The Relationship Between College Women’s Sexual Attitudes and Sexual Activity: The Mediating Role of Body Image International Journal of Sexual Health, 25(2), 104-114. doi: 10.1080/19317611.2012.722593.
Li, S., Chen, R., Cao, Y., Li J., Zuo, D. y Yan, H. (2013). Sexual Knowledge, attitudes and practices of female undergraduate students in Wuhan, China: The only child versus students with siblings. PLoS ONE. 8(9): e73797. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0073797.
MacKinnon, D. P. y Pirlott, A. G. (2015). Statistical approaches for enhancing causal interpretation of the M to Y relation in mediation analysis. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 19(1), 30-43. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1088868314542878.
MacKinnon, D. P., Fairchild, A. J. y Fritz, M. S. (2007). Mediation analysis. Annual Review of Psychology, 58, 593-614. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.58.110405.085542.
MacKinnon, D. P., Lockwood, C. M. y Williams, J. (2004). Confidence limits for the indirect effect: Distribution of the product and resampling methods. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 39(1), 99-128. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1207%2Fs15327906mbr3901_4.
Marquardt, D. W. (1980). You should standardize the predictor variables in your regression models. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 75, 87-91.
Montesi, J. L., Conner, B. T., Gordon, E. A., Fauber, R. L., Kim, K. H. y Heimberg, R. G. (2013). On the relationship among social anxiety, intimacy, sexual communication, and sexual satisfaction in young couples. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 42(1), 81-91. doi: 10.1007/s10508-012-9929-3.
Muise, A., Schimmack, U. e Impett, E. A. (2015). Sexual frequency predicts greater well-being, but more is not always better. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 1-8. doi: 10.1177/0146167213490963.
Péloquin, K., Brassard, A., Delisle, A. y Bédard, M. M. (2013). Integrating the attachment, caregiving and sexual systems into the understanding of sexual satisfaction. Canadian Journal of Behavioral Science, 45(3), 185-195. doi: 10.1037/a0033514.
Pelto, P. J. (2015). What Is So New About Mixed Methods? Qualitative Health Research, 25 (6), 734-745. doi: 10.1177/1049732315573209.
Preacher, K. J. y Hayes, A. F. (2004). SPSS and SAS Procedures for estimating effects in simple mediation models. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments y Computers. 36, 717-731.
Preacher, K. J. y Hayes, A. F. (2008). Asymptotic and resampling strategies for assessing and comparing indirect effects in multiple mediator models. Behavior Research Methods, 40, 879-891.
Ramiro, L., Reis, M., Gaspar de Matos, M., Alves Diniz, J., Ehlinger, V. y Godeau, E. (2014). Sexually transmitted infections prevention across educational stages: Comparing middle, high school and university students in Portugal. Creative Education, 5, 1.405-1.417. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/ce.2014.515159.
Schoenfeld, E. A., Loving, T. J., Pope, M. T., Huston, T. L. y Štulhofer, A. (2016). Does sex really matter? Examining the connections between spouses' nonsexual behaviors, sexual frequency, sexual satisfaction and marital satisfaction. Archives of Sexual Behavior. doi: 10.1007/s10508-015-0672-4.
Sommer, M. y Mmari, K. (2015). Addressing structural and environmental factors for adolescent sexual and reproductive health in low- and middle-income countries. American Journal of Public Health, 105(10), 1.973-1.981. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2015.302740.
Stephenson, K. R. y Sullivan, K. T. (2009). Social norms and general sexual satisfaction: The cost of misperceived descriptive norms. The Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality, 18(3), 89-105.
Twenge, J. M., Sherman, R. A. y Wells, B. E. (2015). Changes in American Adults' Sexual Behavior and Attitudes, 1972-2012. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 44(8), 2.273-2.285. doi: http://doi.org/10.1007/s10508-015-0540-2.
Yago-Simón, T. (2015). Gender conditionings and unplanned pregnancies in adolescents and young girls. Anales De Psicología, 31(3), 972-978. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.6018/analesps.31.3.185911
Zhao, X. Lynch Jr., J. G. y Chen, Q.(2010). Reconsidering Baron and Kenny: Myths and truths about mediation analysis. Journal of Consumer Research, 37(2), 197-206. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/651257.
The works published in this journal are subject to the following terms:
1. The Publications Service of the University of Murcia (the publisher) retains the property rights (copyright) of published works, and encourages and enables the reuse of the same under the license specified in paragraph 2.
2. The works are published in the online edition of the journal under a Creative Commons Reconocimiento-CompartirIgual 4.0 (legal text). You can copy, use, distribute, transmit and publicly display, provided that: i) you cite the author and the original source of publication (journal, editorial and URL of the work), ii) are not used for commercial purposes, iii ) mentions the existence and specifications of this license.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
3. Conditions of self-archiving. Is allowed and encouraged the authors to disseminate electronically pre-print versions (version before being evaluated and sent to the journal) and / or post-print (version reviewed and accepted for publication) of their works before publication, as it encourages its earliest circulation and diffusion and thus a possible increase in its citation and scope between the academic community. RoMEO Color: Green.