Improving number sense in kindergarten children with low achievement in mathematics

  • Estibaliz Aragón-Mendizábal University of Cádiz
  • Manuel Aguilar-Villagrán University of Cádiz
  • José I. Navarro-Guzmán University of Cádiz
  • Richard Howell University of New Mexico
Keywords: early mathematics, low math achievement, kindergarten, computer-based intervention.


The present study evaluated the effectiveness of educational intervention software, Playing with Numbers-2 on early mathematics learning. This software trains learning and mathematical reasoning skills, using an evidenced-based procedure. A total of 156 second-year preschool boys and girls (Mean age = 65.39 months) were assessed by the Early Numeracy Test (ENT), a computerized test to evaluate early math competency. An experimental design with control group and pre and post-intervention assessments was used. Significant differences between pre- and post- intervention for the experimental group was obtained average increase for ENT scores achieved by the experimental group was significantly higher than the control group. The effect size was also significant (d = 1.35; and r = 0.56). This educational intervention using computer-based software, while it does not replace face-to-face instruction, may help to improve the performance of young students at risk of developing problems learning mathematics.


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Author Biographies

Estibaliz Aragón-Mendizábal, University of Cádiz
Department of Psychology
Manuel Aguilar-Villagrán, University of Cádiz
Department of Psychology
José I. Navarro-Guzmán, University of Cádiz
Department of Psychology
Richard Howell, University of New Mexico
Department of Psychology


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How to Cite
Aragón-Mendizábal, E., Aguilar-Villagrán, M., Navarro-Guzmán, J. I., & Howell, R. (2017). Improving number sense in kindergarten children with low achievement in mathematics. Anales De Psicología / Annals of Psychology, 33(2), 311-318.
Developmental and Educational Psychology