Promoting resilience in children with depressive symptoms

  • Óscar Sanchez Universidad de Murcia
  • Francisco Xavier Méndez Carrillo Universidad de Murcia
  • Judy Garber Universidad de Vanderbilt, Nashville
Keywords: childhood depression, explanatory style, prevention, optimism, resilience.

Abstract

A pilot study was conducted with the primary objective to study the effectiveness of a cognitive-behavioral intervention inspired by the Penn Resiliency Program (PRP; Gillham, Jaycox, Reivich, Seligman, & Silver, 1990; Seligman, Reivich, Jaycox, & Gillham, 2005), for the prevention of depression in students from primary education. The main components of the program include modifying explanatory style and resolving interpersonal problems. Results indicated that there was significant improvement from pre-test to post-test in the experimental group for children with "high depressive symptoms" compared with controls. Qualitative analysis were consistent with this trend. Conclusions in light of these results ae discussed and potential directions for future research are recommended.

References

Angold, A., Costello, E. J. & Worthman, C. M. (1998). Puberty and depression: The roles of age, pubertal status, and pubertal timing. Psychological Medicine, 28, 51-61. doi: 10.1017/S003329179700593X

Brunwasser, S. M., Gillham, J. E. & Kim, E. S. (2009). A meta-analytic review of the Penn Resiliency Program’s effect on depressive symptoms. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 77(6), 1042-1054. doi: 10.1037/a0017671

Bustamante V. F. & Florenzano U. R. (2013). Programas de prevención del suicidio adolescente en establecimientos escolares: una revisión de la literatura. Revista chilena de neuro-psiquiatría, 51(2), 126-136. doi:10.4067/S071792272013000200006

Cantrell (2007). An exploratory examination of the effectiveness of explanatory style for positive versus negative events in group cognitive behavioral treatment. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering, Vol 67(9-B), pp. 5391.

Clarke, G. N., Hornbrook, M., Lynch, F., Polen, M., Gale, J., Beardslee, W., O´Connor, E. & Seeley, J. (2001). A randomized trial of a group cognitive intervention for preventing depression in adolescent offspring of depressed parents. Archives of General Psychiatry, 58, 1127-1134. doi: 10.1001/archpsyc.58.12.1127

Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2.ª ed). Hillsdale, Nueva Jersey: Erlbaum.

Cole, D. A., Ciesla, J. A., Dallaire, D. H., Jacquez, F. M., Pineda, A. Q., Lagrange, B., Truss, A. E., Folmer, A. S., Tilghman-Osborne, C. & Felton J. W. (2008). Emergence of attributional style and its relation to depressive symptoms. Journal of Abnormal Psychology , 117, 1, 16-31. doi: 10.1037/0021-843X.117.1.16

Covey, L. S., Glassman, A. H. & Stetner, F. (1998). Cigarette smoking and major depression. Journal of Addictive Diseases, 17, 35-46. doi: 10.1300/J069v17n01_04

Cramer, H. (1946). Mathematical methods of statistics. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Del Barrio, V. (1997). Depresión infantil. Barcelona. Ariel Practicum.

Ferreira, E., Granero, R., Noorian, Z., Acosta, K. R. & Domènech-Llaberia, E. (2012). Acontecimientos vitales y sintomatología depresiva en población adolescente. Revista de psicopatología y psicología clínica, 17 (2), 123-135. doi: 10.5944/rppc.vol.17.num.2.2012.11209

Frias, M. D., Pascual, J. & García, J. F. (2000). Tamaño del efecto del tratamiento y significación estadística. Psicothema, 12 (2), 236-240

Garrison, C. Z., Addy, C. L., Jackson, K. L., McKeown, R. E., & Waller, J. L. (1991). A longitudinal study of suicidal ideation in young adolescents. Journal of the American Academy of Child Adolescent Psychiatry, 30, 597-603. doi: 10.1097/00004583-199107000-00011

Gillham, J.E., Brunwasser, S.M. & Freres, D.R. (2008). Preventing depression early in adolescence: The Penn Resiliency Program. In J.R.Z. Abela y B.L. Hankin (Eds.) Handbook of Depression in children and adolescents (pp. 309-332). New York: Guilford Press.

Gilham, J.E., Hamilton, J., Freres, D.R., Patton, K. & Gallop, R. (2006). Journal Abnorm Child Psychology, 34(2), 203-219

Gillham, J. E., Jaycox, L. H., Reivich, K. J., Seligman, M. E. P. & Silver, T. (1990). The Penn Resiliency Program. (Also known as the Penn Depression Prevention Program and the Penn Optimism Program). Unpublished manuscript, University of Pennsylvania.

Gillham, J. E., Reivich, K. J., Freres, D. R., Chaplin, T. M., Shatte, A. J., Samuels, B., et al. (2007). School-based prevention of depressive symptoms: A randomized controlled study of the effectiveness and specificity of the Penn Resiliency Program. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 75, 9–19. doi: 10.1037/0022-006X.75.1.9

Gotlib, I. H., Lewinsohn, P. M. & Seeley, J. R. (1995). Symptoms versus diagnosis of depression: Differences in psychosocial functioning. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 63, 90-100. doi: 10.1037//0022-006X.63.1.90

Hankin, B. L., Abramson, L. Y., Moffitt, T. E., Silva, P. A., McGee, R. & Angell, K. E. (1998). Development of depression from preadolescence to young

adulthood: Emerging gender differences in a 10-year longitudinal study. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 107(1), 128-140. doi: 10.1037//0021-843X.107.1.128

Hilsman, R. & Garber, J. (1995). A test of the cognitive diathesis-stress model of depression in children: Academic stressors, attributional style, perceived competence, and control. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69, 370-380. doi: 10.1037//0022-3514.69.2.370

Horowitz, J. L. & Garber, J. (2006). The prevention of depressive symptoms in children and adolescents: A meta-analytic review. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 74, 401-415. doi: 10.1037/0022-006X.74.3.401

Horowitz, J. L., Garber, J., Ciesla, J. A., Young, J. & Mufson, L. (2007). Prevention of depressive symptoms in adolescents: A randomized trial of cognitive-behavioral and interpersonal prevention programs. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 75, 693-706. doi: 10.1037/0022-006X.75.5.693

Jaycox, L. H., Reivich, K. J., Gillham, J. & Seligman, M. E. P. (1994). Prevention of depressive symptoms in school children. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 32, 801–816. doi: 10.1016/0005-7967(94)90160-0

LaGrange, B., Cole, D. A., Dallaire, D. H., Ciesla, J. A., Pineda, A. Q., Truss, A. E., & Folmer, A. (2008). Developmental Changes in Depressive Cognitions: A Longitudinal Evaluation of the Cognitive Triad Inventory for Children. Psychological Assessment, Vol. 20, No. 3, 217–226. doi: 10.1037/1040- 3590.20.3.217

Lantieri, L. (2009). Inteligencia emocional infantil y juvenil. Madrid: Aguilar.

Lowry-Webster, H., Barrett, P., & Lock, S. (2003). A universal prevention trial of anxiety symptomatology during childhood: Results at one year follow-up. Behaviour Change, 20 (1), 25-43.

Méndez, F. X. (1999). Depresión en la infancia y la adolescencia. Madrid: Klínic.

Méndez, F. X. (2002). El niño que no sonríe. Madrid: Editorial Pirámide.

Méndez, F. X., Olivares, J. & Ros, C. M. (2001). Características clínicas y tratamiento de la depresión en la infancia y adolescencia. En V. E. Caballo y M. A. Simón (Eds.). Manual de Psicología Clínica Infantil y del Adolescente (pp. 139-185). Madrid. Pirámide.

Merry, S. N., Hetrick, S.E., Cox, G.R., Brudevold-Iversen, T., Bir, J.J. & McDowell, H. (2011). Psychological and educational interventions for preventing depression in children and adolescents. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue 12. Art. No.: CD003380. doi: 10.1002/14651858. CD003380.pub3.

Mihalopoulos C., Vos T., Pirkis J., Smit F. & Carter R. (2011). Do indicated preventive interventions for depression represent good value for money? Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 45, 36–44. doi:10.3109/00048674.2010.501024.

Morris, S.B. (2000). Distribution of the standardized mean change effect size for metaanalysis on repeated measures. British Journal of Mathematical & Statistical Psychology, 53, 17-29. doi: 10.1348/000711000159150

Morris, S.B. & DeShon, R.P. (2002). Combining effect size estimates in meta-analysis with repeated measures and independent-groups designs. Psychological Methods, 7, 105-125. doi: 10.1037/1082-989X.7.1.105

Nolen-Hoeksema, S., Girgus, J.S. & Seligman, M.E.P. (1992). Predictors and consequences of childhood depressive symptoms: a 5-year longitudinal study. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 101, 405-422. doi: 10.1037//0021- 843X.101.3.405

Pearson, K. (1913). On the probable error of a correlation coefficient as found from a fourfold table. Biometrika, 9, 22-27. doi: 10.2307/2331798

Sánchez-Hernández, O. & Méndez, F. X. (2014). Estilo explicativo positivo vs Estilo explicativo negativo. Diferencias de Género. Comunicación presentada en el II Congreso Nacional de Psicología Positiva (España).

Sánchez-Hernández, O., Méndez, F. X. & Garber, J. (2014). Prevención de la depresión en niños y adolescentes: Revisión y reflexión. Revista de Psicopatología y Psicología Clínica, 19 (1), 63-76. doi: 10.5944/rppc.vol.19.num.1.2014.12983

Sánchez-Teruel, D., García-León, A. & Muela-Martínez, J. A. (2014). Prevention, assessment and treatment of suicidal behavior. Anales de Psicología, 30(3), 952-963. doi: 10.6018/analesps.30.3.148691

Seligman, M.E.P., Reivich, K., Jaycox, L. & Gillham, J. (2005). Niños optimistas. Barcelona: Random House Mondadori, S.A.

Spence, S. H., Sheffield, J. K. & Donovan, C. L. (2005). Long-term outcome of a school- based, universal approach to prevention of depression in adolescents. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 73,160-167. doi: 10.1037/0022- 006X.73.1.160

Stice, E., Shaw, H., Bohon, C., Marti, C.N. & Rohde, P. (2009). A Meta-Analytic Review of Depression Prevention Programs for Children and Adolescents: Factors That Predict Magnitude of Intervention Effects. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 77 (3), 486-503. doi: 10.1037/a0015168

Turner, J. E. & Cole, D. A. (1994). Development differences in cognitive diatheses for child depression. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 2, 15-32. doi: 10.1007/BF02169254

Twenge, J. M. & Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (2002). Age, gender, race, socioeconomic status, and birth cohort difference on the Children’s Depression Inventory: A meta- analysis. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 111, 578-588. doi: 10.1037//0021- 843X.111.4.578

Vázquez, F. L., Blanco, V., Torres, A., Otero, P. & Hermida, E. (2014). La eficacia de la prevención indicada de la depresión: una revisión. Anales de Psicología, 30(1), 9-24. doi: 10.6018/analesps.30.1.138931

Weissman, M., Orvaschel, H. & Padian, N. (1980).Children´s symptom and social functioning: Self-report scales. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 168, 736-740.

Yu, D. L. & Seligman, M. E. P. (2002). Preventing depressive symptoms in Chinese children. Prevention and Treatment, 5, (article 9). doi: 10.1037//1522- 3736.5.1.59a

Published
28-07-2016
How to Cite
Sanchez, Óscar, Méndez Carrillo, F., & Garber, J. (2016). Promoting resilience in children with depressive symptoms. Anales De Psicología / Annals of Psychology, 32(3), 741-748. https://doi.org/10.6018/analesps.32.3.261671
Section
Monographic theme: Positive Psychology in Spain