Cognitive reserve scale and ageing

  • Irene León Department of Psychology, University of Almeria
  • Juan García-García Department of Psychology, University of Almeria
  • Lola Roldán-Tapia Department of Psychology, University of Almeria
Keywords: Activities, quality of life, lifestyle, elderly, measurement, neuropsychology, cognitive reserve.

Abstract

The construct of cognitive reserve attempts to explain why some individuals with brain impairment, and some people during normal ageing, can solve cognitive tasks better than expected. This study aimed to estimate cognitive reserve in a healthy sample of people aged 65 years and over, with special attention to its influence on cognitive performance. For this purpose, it used the Cognitive Reserve Scale (CRS) and a neuropsychological battery that included tests of attention and memory. The results revealed that women obtained higher total CRS raw scores than men. Moreover, the CRS predicted the learning curve, short-term and long-term memory, but not attentional and working memory performance. Thus, the CRS offers a new proxy of cognitive reserve based on cognitively stimulating activities performed by healthy elderly people. Following an active lifestyle throughout life was associated with better intellectual performance and positive effects on relevant aspects of quality of life.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Akbaraly, T. N., Portet, F., Fustinoni, S., Dartigues, J. F., Artero, S., Rouaud, O., … Berr, C. (2009). Leisure activities and the risk of dementia in the elderly: Results from the three-city study. Neurology, 73, 854–861.

Arenaza-Urquijo, E. M., Landeau, B., La Joie, R., Mevel, K., Mézenge, F., Perrotin, A., … Chételat, G. (2013). Relationships between years of education and gray matter volume, metabolism and functional connectivity in healthy elders. Neuroimage, 83, 450–457.

Benedet, M. y Alejandre, M. (1998). Test de aprendizaje verbal España-Complutense (TAVEC). Madrid: TEA.

Caamaño-Isorna, F., Corral, M., Montes-Martínez, A. y Takkouche, B. (2006). Education and dementia: A meta-analytic study. Neuroepidemiology, 26, 226–232.

Calero, M. D., Navarro, E. y Muñoz, L. (2007). Influence of activity on cognitive performance and cognitive plasticity in elderly persons. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 45, 307–318.

Carnero-Pardo, C. y del Ser, T. (2007). La educación proporciona reserva cognitiva en el deterioro cognitivo y la demencia. Neurologia, 22, 78–85.

Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioural sciences (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Díaz-Orueta, U., Buiza-Bueno, C. y Yanguas-Lezaun, J. (2010). Reserva cognitiva: Evidencias, limitaciones y líneas de investigación futura. Revista Española de Geriatría y Gerontología, 45, 150–155.

Ewers, M., Insel, P. S., Stern, Y. y Weiner, M. W. (2013). Cognitive reserve associated with FDG-PET in preclinical Alzheimer disease. Neurology, 80, 1194–1201.

Folstein, M., Folstein, S. E. y McHugh, P. R. (1975). Mini-Mental State: A practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 12, 189–198.

Fratiglioni, L., Paillard-Borg, S. y Winblad, B. (2004). An active and socially integrated lifestyle in late life might protect against dementia. Neurology, 3, 343–353.

Golden, C. J. (2010). Stroop: Test de colores y palabras. Madrid: TEA.

Hertzog, C., Kramer, A. F., Wilson, R. S. y Lindenberger, U. (2008). Enrichment effects on the adult cognitive development: Can the functional capacity of older adults be preserved and enhanced? Psychological Science in the Public Interest, Supplement, 9, 1–65.

Instituto Nacional de Estadística (2011). Clasificación Nacional de Ocupaciones. Recuperado de http://www.ine.es/jaxi/menu.do?type=pcaxis&path=/t40/cno11&file=inebase

Instituto Nacional de Estadística (2013). España en cifras. Recuperado de http://www.ine.es/ss/Satellite?L=es_ES&c=INEPublicacion_C&cid=1259924856416&p=1254735110672&pagename=ProductosYServicios%2FPYSLayout&param1=PYSDetalleGratuitas

Le Carret, N., Auriacombe, S., Letenneur, L., Bergua, V., Dartigues, J. F. y Fabrigoule, C. (2005). Influence of education on the pattern of cognitive deterioration in AD patients: The cognitive reserve hypothesis. Brain and Cognition, 57, 120–126.

León, I., García, J. y Roldán-Tapia, L. (2011). Construcción de la Escala de Reserva Cognitiva en población española: Estudio piloto [Development of the Scale of Cognitive Reserve in Spanish population: A pilot study]. Revista de Neurología, 52, 653–660.

León, I., García-García, J. y Roldán-Tapia, L. (2014). Estimating cognitive reserve in healthy adults using the Cognitive Reserve Scale. PLoS One, 9: e102632. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0102632

Liu, Y., Julkunen, V., Paajanen, T., Westman, E., Wahlund, L. O., Aitken, A., … Soininen, H. (2012). Education increases reserve against Alzheimer’s disease: Evidence from structural MRI analysis. Neuroradiology, 54, 929–938.

Lobo, A., Esquerra, J., Gomez-Burgada, F., Sala, J. M. y Seva, A. (1979). El Mini-Examen Cognoscitivo: Un test sencillo y práctico para detectar alteraciones intelectuales en pacientes médicos. Actas Luso-Españolas de Neurología, Psiquiatría y Ciencias afines, 3, 189–202.

Meng, X. y D’Arcy, C. (2012). Education and dementia in the context of the cognitive reserve hypothesis: A systematic review with meta-analyses and qualitative analyses. PLoS One, 7: e38268. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0038268.

Navarro, E., Calero, M. D., López, A., Gómez, A. L., Torres, I. y Calero, M. J. (2008). Nivel de independencia en la vida diaria y plasticidad cognitiva en la vejez. Escritos de Psicología, 2, 74–84.

Nucci, M., Mapelli, D. y Mondini, S. (2012). Cognitive Reserve Index questionnaire (CRIq): A new instrument for measuring cognitive reserve. Aging Clinical and Experimental Research, 24, 218–226.

Organización Mundial de la Salud (2013). Preguntas más frecuentes. Recuperado de http://www.who.int/suggestions/faq/es/

Paillard-Borg, S., Fratiglioni, L., Xu, W., Winbland, B. y Wang, H. X. (2012). An active lifestyle postpones dementia onset by more than one year in very old adults. Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease, 31, 835–842.

Premi, E., Garibotto, Y., Gazzina, S., Grassi, M., Cosseddu, M., Paghera, B., … Borroni, B. (2013). Beyond cognitive reserve: Behavioural reserve hypothesis in frontotemporal dementia. Behavioural Brain Research, 15, 245–262.

Ramí, L., Valls-Pedret, C., Bartrés-Faz, D., Caprile, C., Solé-Padullés, C., Castellví, … Molinuevo, J. L. (2011). Cuestionario de reserva cognitiva. Valores obtenidos en población anciana sana y con enfermedad de Alzheimer [Cognitive reserve questionnaire. Scores obtained in a healthy elderly population and in one with Alzheimer’s disease]. Revista de Neurología, 52, 195–201.

Rey, A. (2009). Test de copia de una figura compleja. Madrid: TEA.

Rodríguez-Álvarez, M. y Sánchez-Rodríguez, J. L. (2004). Reserva cognitiva y demencia. Anales de Psicología, 20, 175–186.

Roldán-Tapia, L., García, J., Cánovas, R. y León, I. (2012). Cognitive reserve, age, and their relation to attentional and executive functions. Applied Neuropsychology: Adult, 19, 2–8.

Sánchez, J. L., Torrellas, C., Martín, J. y Barrera, I. (2011). Study of sociodemographic variables linked to lifestyle and their possible influence on cognitive reserve. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 33, 874–891.

Scarmeas, N. (2007). Lifestyle patterns and cognitive reserve. In Y. Stern (Ed.), Cognitive reserve (pp. 187–206). New York: Taylor & Francis.

Scarmeas, N., Levy, G., Tang, M. X., Manly, J. y Stern Y. (2001). Influence of leisure activity on the incidence of Alzheimer’s disease. Neurology, 57, 2236–2242.

Small, B. J., Dixon, R. A., McArdle, J. J. y Grimm, K. J. (2012). Do changes in lifestyle engagement moderate cognitive decline in normal aging? Evidence from the Victoria longitudinal study. Neuropsychology, 26, 144–155.

Sobral, M. y Paúl, C. (2013). Education, leisure activities and cognitive and functional ability of Alzheimer’s disease patients: A follow-up study. Dementia & Neuropsychologia, 7, 181–189.

Staff, R. T., Murray, A. D., Deary, I. J. y Whalley, L. J. (2004). What provides cerebral reserve? Brain, 127, 1191–1199.

Stern, Y. (2009). Cognitive reserve. Neuropsychologia, 47, 2015–2028.

Stern, Y. (2012). Cognitive reserve in ageing and Alzheimer’s disease. Lancet Neurology, 11, 1006–1012.

Suo, C., León, I., Brodaty, H., Trollor, J., Wen, W., Sachdev, P. y Valenzuela, M. J. (2012). Supervisory experience at work is linked to low rate of hippocampal atrophy in late life. Neuroimage, 63, 1542–1551.

Tamayo, F., Casals-Coll, M., Sánchez-Benavides, G., Quintana, M., Manero, R. M., Rognoni, T., … Peña-Casanova, J. (2012). Estudios normativos españoles en población adulta joven (Proyecto NEURONORMA Jóvenes): Normas para las pruebas span verbal, span visuoespacial, Letter–Number Sequencing, Trail Making Test y Symbol Digit Modalities Test. Neurologia, 27, 319–329.

Tucker, A. M. y Stern, Y. (2011). Cognitive reserve in aging. Current Alzheimer Research, 8, 354–360.

Valenzuela, M. J. y Sachdev, P. (2007). Assessment of complex mental activity across the lifespan: Development of the Lifetime of Experiences Questionnaire (LEQ). Psychological Medicine, 37, 1015–1025.

Valenzuela, M. J., Sachdev, P., Wen, W., Chen, X. y Brodaty, H. (2008). Lifespan mental activity predicts diminished rate of hippocampal atrophy. PLoS One, 3, e2598. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0002598.

Van Dijk, K. R., Van Gerven, P. W., Van Boxtel, M. P., Van der Elst, W. y Jolles, J. (2008). No protective effects of education during normal cognitive aging: Results from the 6-year follow-up of the Maastricht Aging Study. Psychology and Aging, 23, 119–130.

Vemuri, P., Lesnick, T. G., Przybelski, S. A., Knopman, D. S., Roberts, R. O., Lowe, V. J., … Jack, C. R., Jr. (2012). Effect of lifestyle activities on Alzheimer disease biomarkers and cognition. Annals of Neurology, 72, 730–738.

Wechsler, D. (2004). Escala de Memoria de Wechsler-III (WMS-III). Madrid: TEA.

Wilson, R., Barnes, L. y Bennett, D. (2003). Assessment of lifetime participation in cognitively stimulating activities. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 25, 634–642.

Wilson, R. S., Boyle, P. A., Yu, L., Barnes, L. L., Schneider, J. A. y Bennett, D. A. (2013). Life-span cognitive activity, neuropathologic burden, and cognitive aging. Neurology, 81, 314–321.

Published
25-12-2015
How to Cite
León, I., García-García, J., & Roldán-Tapia, L. (2015). Cognitive reserve scale and ageing. Anales De Psicología / Annals of Psychology, 32(1), 218-223. https://doi.org/10.6018/analesps.32.1.182331
Section
Psicología y vejez