Moderating Effects of Hardiness and optimism on negative life events and coping self-efficacy in first-year undergraduate students
Introduction. This study analyzes the role of Hardiness and optimism on negative life events and coping self-efficacy in 228 first-year undergraduate students from lorestan university (iran). The aim of the study was two-fold: (1) to analyze the associations between Hardiness, optimism, negative life events and coping self-efficacy; and (2) to determine whether Hardiness and optimism moderates the relationship between negative life events and coping self-efficacy.
Method. This descriptive correlational study was conducted in the school year of 2016-17. In this study, at first we selected 228 students. Then the students completed the Adolescent Life Events Questionnaire (ALEQ), Revised Life Orientation Test (LOT-R), Kobasa's Hardiness Scale, and Coping Self-Efficacy Scale (CSE). Hierarchical linear regression analyses were used to examine the moderating role of Hardiness and optimism.
Results. Results reveal that there is a significant Relationship between Hardiness, optimism, negative life events and coping self-efficacy. Hardiness and optimism was also a moderator in the relationship between negative life events and coping self-efficacy.
Conclusion. The findings supported the hypothesis that higher levels of Hardiness and optimism would be associated with higher levels of Coping Self-Efficacy, and that lower levels of Hardiness and optimism would be associated with lower levels of Coping Self-Efficacy. Finally, our results imply that Hardiness and optimism is an important moderator of student’s negative life events on Coping Self-Efficacy.
Alarcon, G.M., Bowling, N.A., & Khazon, S. (2013). Great expectations: A meta-analytic examination of optimism and hope. Personality and Individual Differences, 54, 821–827. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2012.12.004.
Aiken, L. S., & West, S. G. (1991). Multiple regression: Testing and interpreting interactions. Newbury Park: Sage.
Alacorn, G. M., Bowling, N. A., & Khazon, S. (2013). Great expectations: A meta-analytic examination of hope and optimism. Personality and Individual Differences, 54, 821–827.
Aspinwall, L. G. & Taylor, S. E. (1992). Modeling cognitive adaptation: a longitudinal investigation of the impact of individual differences and coping on college adjustment and performance. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 61, 755-765.
Baron, R. M., Kenny D. A. (1986). The moderator–mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51, 1173–1182. doi: 10.1037/0022-35126.96.36.1993.
Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Bandura, A. (1997). Social Foundations of Thought and Action: A Social Cognitive Theory. Freeman, New York, NY.
Bandura, A., Taylor, C., Williams, S., Mefford, I., & Barchas, J. (1985). Catecholamine secretion as a function of perceived coping self-efficacy. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 53, 406-414. doi: 10.1037/0022- 006X.53.3.406.
Bartone, P. T. (2006). Resilience under military operational stress: Can leaders influence hardiness. Military Psychology, 18 (S), S131 - S148.
Benka, J., Nagyova, I., Rosenberger, J. et al. (2014). Is Coping Self-Efficacy Related to Psychological Distress in Early and Established Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients? Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities, 26, 285. doi: 10.1007/s10882-013-9364-y.
Betoret, F. D. (2006). Stressors, self - efficacy, and coping resources and burnout among secondary school teachers in Spain. Educational Psychology, 26 (4), 519 - 539. doi: 10. 1080/01443410500342492.
Chesney, M. A., Neilands, T. B., Chambers, D. B., Taylor, J. M., & Folkman, S. (2006). A validity and reliability study of the Coping Self-Efficacy scale. British Journal of Health Psychology, 11(3), 421-437. doi: 10.1348/135910705X53155.
Creed, P., Conlon, E., & Dhaliwal, K. (2013). Revisiting the academic hardiness scale: Revision and revalidation. Journal of Career Assessment, 21(4), 537–554. doi: 10.1177/1069072712475285.
Dubow, E. F., & Luster, T. (1990). Adjustment of chil dren born to teenage mothers: The contribution of risk and protective factors. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 52(2), 393-404. doi: 10.2307/353034.
Friedman, H.S., & Kern, M.L. (2014). Personality, well-being, and health. Annual Review of Psychology, 65, 719–742. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-psych-010213-115123.
Gentry, W. D., & Kobasa, S. C. (1984). Social and psychological resources mediating stress-illness relationships in humans. In W. D. Gentry (Ed.), Handbook of behavioral medicine, (87-116). New York: Guilford Press.
Gibbons, C. (2015). Stress, eustress and the national student survey. Psychology of Teaching Review, 21(2), 86–91.
Gito, M., Ihara, H., & Ogata, H. (2012). The relationship of resilience, hardiness, depression, and burnout amo ng Japanese psychiatric hospital nurses. Journal of Nursing Education and Practice, 11 (3), 12 - 18. doi:10.5430/jnep.v3n11p12.
Hankin, B.L., & Abramson, L.Y. (2002). Measuring cognitive vulnerability to depression in adolescence: Reliability, validity, and gender differences. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 31, 491-504. doi: 10.1207/S15374424JCCP3104_8.
Karagiannopoulou, E., & Kamtsios, S. (2011). Stages of change, self-efficacy and stress management perceptions in undergraduate students. International Journal of Psychology and Behavioral Sciences, 1(1), 1–9. doi: 10.5923/j.ijpbs.20110101.04.
Kraaij, V., Garnefski, N., & Maes, S. (2002). The joint effects of stress, coping, and coping resources on depressive symptoms in the elderly. Anxiety, Stress and Coping, 15, 163-177. doi: 10.1080/10615800290028468.
Kobasa, S. C. (1979). Stressful life events, personality, and health: An inquiry into hardiness. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 37(1), 1-11. doi: 10.1037/0022 - 35188.8.131.52
Kobasa., S.C. (1982). Commitment and Coping in stress resistance among lawyers. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 42, 707-717.
Krok, D. (2015). The mediating role of optimism in the relations between sense of coherence, subjective and psychological well-being among late adolescents. Personality and Individual Differences, 85, 134-139. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2015.05.006.
Lazarus, R. S., & Folkman, S. (1984). Stress, appraisal, and coping. New York: Springer.
Long, B. C. (1993). Coping strategies of male managers: a prospective analysis of predictors of psychosomatic symptoms and job satisfaction. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 42, 184-199. doi: 10.1006/jvbe.1993.1013.
Maddi, S. R., & Khoshaba, D. M. (1994). Hardiness and mental health. Journal of Personality Assessment, 63 (2), 265-274. doi: 10.1207/s15327752jpa6302_6.
Maddi, S. R. (2002). The story of hardiness: Twenty years of theorizing, research, and practice. Consulting Psychology Journal, 54(3), 173-185. doi: 10.1037/1061 - 4087.54.3.173.
Nicholls, A. R., Polman, R., & Levy, A. R. (2010). Coping self-efficacy, pre-competitive anxiety, and subjective performance among athletes. European Journal of Sport Science, 10, 97-102. doi.org/10.1080/17461390903271592.
Pisanti, R. (2012). Coping self-efficacy and psychological distress: results from an Italian study on nurses. The European Health Psychologist, 14(1), 11–14.
Pisanti, R., Lombardo, C., Lucidi, F., Lazzari, D., & Bertini, M. (2008). Development and validation of a brief Occupational Coping Self-Efficacy Questionnaire for Nurses. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 62(2), 238-247. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2648.2007.04582.x
Reisberg, L. (2000). Student stress is rising, especially among young women. The Chronicle of Higher Education, 46(21), 49-50.
Robotham, D. (2008). Stress among higher education students: Towards a research agenda. Higher Education, 56, 735-746. doi: 10.1007/s10734-008-9137-1.
Scheier, M. F. & Carver, C. S. (1985). Optimism, coping, and health: assessment and implications ofgeneralized outcome expectancies. Health Psychology, 4, 219-247.
Scheier, M. F., Carver, C. S., & Bridges, M. W. (1994). Distinguishing optimism from neuroticism (and trait anxiety, self-mastery, and self-esteem): A re-evaluation of the Life Orientation Test. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67, 1063-1078. doi: 10.1037//0022-35184.108.40.2063.
Stecker, T. (2004). Well-being in an academic environment. Medical Education, 38(5), 465-478.
Vaezi, S., & Fallah, N. (2011). The relationship between self - efficacy and stress among Iranian EFL teachers. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 2(5), 1168 - 1174. doi:10.4304/jltr.2.5.1168 – 1174.
Copyright (c) 2020 Servicio de Publicaciones, University of Murcia (Spain)
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
The works published in this journal are subject to the following terms:
1. The Publications Service of the University of Murcia (the publisher) retains the property rights (copyright) of published works, and encourages and enables the reuse of the same under the license specified in paragraph 2.
2. The works are published in the online edition of the journal under a Creative Commons Reconocimiento-CompartirIgual 4.0 (legal text). You can copy, use, distribute, transmit and publicly display, provided that: i) you cite the author and the original source of publication (journal, editorial and URL of the work), ii) are not used for commercial purposes, iii ) mentions the existence and specifications of this license.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
3. Conditions of self-archiving. Is allowed and encouraged the authors to disseminate electronically pre-print versions (version before being evaluated and sent to the journal) and / or post-print (version reviewed and accepted for publication) of their works before publication, as it encourages its earliest circulation and diffusion and thus a possible increase in its citation and scope between the academic community. RoMEO Color: Green.