Moderating Effects of Hardiness and optimism on negative life events and coping self-efficacy in first-year undergraduate students

  • Mohammad Abbasi
  • Ezatollah Ghadampour
  • Mohammad Hojati phd student
  • Abas Senobar
Keywords: Negative life events, Hardiness, Optimism, Coping Self-Efficacy, First-year undergraduate students, Iran

Abstract

Introduction. This study analyzes the role of Hardiness and optimism on negative life events and coping self-efficacy in 228 first-year undergraduate students from lorestan university (iran). The aim of the study was two-fold: (1) to analyze the associations between Hardiness, optimism, negative life events and coping self-efficacy; and (2) to determine whether Hardiness and optimism moderates the relationship between negative life events and coping self-efficacy.

Method. This descriptive correlational study was conducted in the school year of 2016-17. In this study, at first we selected 228 students. Then the students completed the Adolescent Life Events Questionnaire (ALEQ), Revised Life Orientation Test (LOT-R), Kobasa's Hardiness Scale, and Coping Self-Efficacy Scale (CSE). Hierarchical linear regression analyses were used to examine the moderating role of Hardiness and optimism.

Results. Results reveal that there is a significant Relationship between Hardiness, optimism, negative life events and coping self-efficacy. Hardiness and optimism was also a moderator in the relationship between negative life events and coping self-efficacy.

Conclusion. The findings supported the hypothesis that higher levels of Hardiness and optimism would be associated with higher levels of Coping Self-Efficacy, and that lower levels of Hardiness and optimism would be associated with lower levels of Coping Self-Efficacy. Finally, our results imply that Hardiness and optimism is an important moderator of student’s negative life events on Coping Self-Efficacy.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Alarcon, G.M., Bowling, N.A., & Khazon, S. (2013). Great expectations: A meta-analytic examination of optimism and hope. Personality and Individual Differences, 54, 821–827. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2012.12.004.

Aiken, L. S., & West, S. G. (1991). Multiple regression: Testing and interpreting interactions. Newbury Park: Sage.

Alacorn, G. M., Bowling, N. A., & Khazon, S. (2013). Great expectations: A meta-analytic examination of hope and optimism. Personality and Individual Differences, 54, 821–827.

Aspinwall, L. G. & Taylor, S. E. (1992). Modeling cognitive adaptation: a longitudinal investigation of the impact of individual differences and coping on college adjustment and performance. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 61, 755-765.

Baron, R. M., Kenny D. A. (1986). The moderator–mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51, 1173–1182. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.51.6.1173.

Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Bandura, A. (1997). Social Foundations of Thought and Action: A Social Cognitive Theory. Freeman, New York, NY.

Bandura, A., Taylor, C., Williams, S., Mefford, I., & Barchas, J. (1985). Catecholamine secretion as a function of perceived coping self-efficacy. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 53, 406-414. doi: 10.1037/0022- 006X.53.3.406.

Bartone, P. T. (2006). Resilience under military operational stress: Can leaders influence hardiness. Military Psychology, 18 (S), S131 - S148.

Benka, J., Nagyova, I., Rosenberger, J. et al. (2014). Is Coping Self-Efficacy Related to Psychological Distress in Early and Established Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients? Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities, 26, 285. doi: 10.1007/s10882-013-9364-y.

Betoret, F. D. (2006). Stressors, self - efficacy, and coping resources and burnout among secondary school teachers in Spain. Educational Psychology, 26 (4), 519 - 539. doi: 10. 1080/01443410500342492.

Chesney, M. A., Neilands, T. B., Chambers, D. B., Taylor, J. M., & Folkman, S. (2006). A validity and reliability study of the Coping Self-Efficacy scale. British Journal of Health Psychology, 11(3), 421-437. doi: 10.1348/135910705X53155.

Creed, P., Conlon, E., & Dhaliwal, K. (2013). Revisiting the academic hardiness scale: Revision and revalidation. Journal of Career Assessment, 21(4), 537–554. doi: 10.1177/1069072712475285.

Dubow, E. F., & Luster, T. (1990). Adjustment of chil dren born to teenage mothers: The contribution of risk and protective factors. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 52(2), 393-404. doi: 10.2307/353034.

Friedman, H.S., & Kern, M.L. (2014). Personality, well-being, and health. Annual Review of Psychology, 65, 719–742. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-psych-010213-115123.

Gentry, W. D., & Kobasa, S. C. (1984). Social and psychological resources mediating stress-illness relationships in humans. In W. D. Gentry (Ed.), Handbook of behavioral medicine, (87-116). New York: Guilford Press.

Gibbons, C. (2015). Stress, eustress and the national student survey. Psychology of Teaching Review, 21(2), 86–91.

Gito, M., Ihara, H., & Ogata, H. (2012). The relationship of resilience, hardiness, depression, and burnout amo ng Japanese psychiatric hospital nurses. Journal of Nursing Education and Practice, 11 (3), 12 - 18. doi:10.5430/jnep.v3n11p12.

Hankin, B.L., & Abramson, L.Y. (2002). Measuring cognitive vulnerability to depression in adolescence: Reliability, validity, and gender differences. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 31, 491-504. doi: 10.1207/S15374424JCCP3104_8.

Karagiannopoulou, E., & Kamtsios, S. (2011). Stages of change, self-efficacy and stress management perceptions in undergraduate students. International Journal of Psychology and Behavioral Sciences, 1(1), 1–9. doi: 10.5923/j.ijpbs.20110101.04.

Kraaij, V., Garnefski, N., & Maes, S. (2002). The joint effects of stress, coping, and coping resources on depressive symptoms in the elderly. Anxiety, Stress and Coping, 15, 163-177. doi: 10.1080/10615800290028468.

Kobasa, S. C. (1979). Stressful life events, personality, and health: An inquiry into hardiness. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 37(1), 1-11. doi: 10.1037/0022 - 3514.37.1.1

Kobasa., S.C. (1982). Commitment and Coping in stress resistance among lawyers. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 42, 707-717.

Krok, D. (2015). The mediating role of optimism in the relations between sense of coherence, subjective and psychological well-being among late adolescents. Personality and Individual Differences, 85, 134-139. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2015.05.006.

Lazarus, R. S., & Folkman, S. (1984). Stress, appraisal, and coping. New York: Springer.

Long, B. C. (1993). Coping strategies of male managers: a prospective analysis of predictors of psychosomatic symptoms and job satisfaction. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 42, 184-199. doi: 10.1006/jvbe.1993.1013.

Maddi, S. R., & Khoshaba, D. M. (1994). Hardiness and mental health. Journal of Personality Assessment, 63 (2), 265-274. doi: 10.1207/s15327752jpa6302_6.

Maddi, S. R. (2002). The story of hardiness: Twenty years of theorizing, research, and practice. Consulting Psychology Journal, 54(3), 173-185. doi: 10.1037/1061 - 4087.54.3.173.

Nicholls, A. R., Polman, R., & Levy, A. R. (2010). Coping self-efficacy, pre-competitive anxiety, and subjective performance among athletes. European Journal of Sport Science, 10, 97-102. doi.org/10.1080/17461390903271592.

Pisanti, R. (2012). Coping self-efficacy and psychological distress: results from an Italian study on nurses. The European Health Psychologist, 14(1), 11–14.

Pisanti, R., Lombardo, C., Lucidi, F., Lazzari, D., & Bertini, M. (2008). Development and validation of a brief Occupational Coping Self-Efficacy Questionnaire for Nurses. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 62(2), 238-247. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2648.2007.04582.x

Reisberg, L. (2000). Student stress is rising, especially among young women. The Chronicle of Higher Education, 46(21), 49-50.

Robotham, D. (2008). Stress among higher education students: Towards a research agenda. Higher Education, 56, 735-746. doi: 10.1007/s10734-008-9137-1.

Scheier, M. F. & Carver, C. S. (1985). Optimism, coping, and health: assessment and implications ofgeneralized outcome expectancies. Health Psychology, 4, 219-247.

Scheier, M. F., Carver, C. S., & Bridges, M. W. (1994). Distinguishing optimism from neuroticism (and trait anxiety, self-mastery, and self-esteem): A re-evaluation of the Life Orientation Test. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67, 1063-1078. doi: 10.1037//0022-3514.67.6.1063.

Stecker, T. (2004). Well-being in an academic environment. Medical Education, 38(5), 465-478.

Vaezi, S., & Fallah, N. (2011). The relationship between self - efficacy and stress among Iranian EFL teachers. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 2(5), 1168 - 1174. doi:10.4304/jltr.2.5.1168 – 1174.

Published
05-08-2020
How to Cite
Abbasi, M., Ghadampour, E., Hojati, M., & Senobar, A. (2020). Moderating Effects of Hardiness and optimism on negative life events and coping self-efficacy in first-year undergraduate students. Anales De Psicología / Annals of Psychology, 36(3), 451-456. https://doi.org/10.6018/analesps.402111
Section
Clinical and Health Psychology