Adaptation and validation to the spanish context of the scale of self-stigma in relatives of people with mental illness

  • Rubén Trigueros Universidad de Antonio de Nebrija
  • José Manuel Aguilar-Parra Universidad de Almería
  • Adolfo Javier Cangas Universidad de Almería
  • Luis Ortiz Universidad de Almería
  • Noelia Navarro Universidad de Almería
Keywords: Mental Illness, Selfstigma, families, psychology

Abstract

Stigma, and in particular self-stigma in people with severe mental disorder (GIST), is one of the main problems faced by mental health professionals. However, this problem is not only found in people who suffer from this mental illness, but its consequences affect family members in the same way. For this reason, it is necessary to adapt and validate in the Spanish context the Scale of Self-Stigma in Relatives of People with Mental Illness (AFPEM). The study involved 304 adults (M = 44.57, SD = 15.29). To analyze the psychometric properties of the scale, several analyzes have been carried out. The results of the confirmatory factorial analysis (CFA) have offered support to the questionnaire structure of 30 items, 10 items and the higher order model. The structure of the models was invariant respect to gender. Cronbach's alpha values ​​were greater than .70 in the different subscales. The results of this study have provided evidence of validity and reliability of the AFPEM, so that various mental health professionals will have an instrument with which assesses the degree of self-stigma that family members of people with SMI have.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Bentler, P. M. (1989). EQS structural equations program manual. Los Angeles: BMDP Statistical Software.

Brohan, E., Elgie, R., Sartorius, N. y Thornicroft, G. (2010). Self-stigma, empowerment and perceived discrimination among people with schizophrenia in 14 European countries: the GAMIAN-Europestudy. Schizophrenia Research, 122, 232-238.

Byrne, B. M. (2001). Structural equation modeling with Amos: Basic concepts, applications and programming. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Byrne, B. M., Shavelson, R. J., y Muthén, B. (1989). Testing for the equivalence of factor covariance and mean structures: The issue of partial measurement invariance. Psychological bulletin, 105(3), 456-466.

Comisión de las Comunidades Europeas. (2005). Libro Verde. Mejorar la salud mental de la población. Hacia una estrategia de la Unión Europea en materia de salud mental. Bruselas: Comisión de las Comunidades Europeas. Recuperado de: https://ec.europa.eu/health/ph_determinants/life_style/mental/green_paper/mental_gp_es.pdf.

Corrigan, P.W., Michaels, P.J., Vega, E., Gause, M., Watson, A.C. y Rusch, N. (2012). Self-stigma of mental illness scale-short form: reliability and validity. Psychiatry Research, 199, 65-69.

Corrigan, P.W. y Watson, A.C. (2002). Understanding the impact of stigma on people with mental illness. World Psychiatry, 1, 16-20.

Corrigan, P. W., Watson, A. C. y Barr, L. (2006). The self-stigma of mental illness: Implications for self-esteem and self-efficacy. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 25, 875-884.

Evans-Lacko, S., Henderson, C., Thornicroft, G. y McCrone, P. (2013). Economic evaluation of the anti-stigma social marketing campaign in England 2009-2011. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 202, 95-101.

Flores-Reynoso S., Medina-Dávalos, R. y Robles-García, R. (2011). Estudio de traducción al español y evaluación psicométrica de una escala para medir el estigma internalizado en pacientes con trastornos mentales graves. Salud Mental, 34, 333-339.

Hambleton, R.K. (1996). Adaptación de tests para su uso en diferentes idiomas y culturas: fuentes de error, posibles soluciones y directrices prácticas. En J. Muñiz (Ed.), Psicometría (pp. 203-238). Madrid: Universitas

Hu, L., y Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cut-off criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling, 6, 1-55. doi: 10.1080/10705519909540118

Johnson, M., Moorhead, S., Maas, M. y Swanson, E. (1999). Nursing outcomes classification (NOC): estresores del cuidado. Estados Unidos: Mosby Year Book.

Jöreskog, K. G., y Sörbom, D. (1993). LISREL 8: Structural equation modeling with the SIMPLIS command language. Chicago: Scientific Software.

Kadri, N., Manoudi, F., Berrada, S., y Moussaoui, D. (2004). Stigma impact on Moroccan families of patients with schizophrenia. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 49, 625-629.

King, M., Dinos, S., Shaw, J.,Watson, R., Stevens, S., Passetti, F., Weich, S. y Serfaty M. (2007). The stigma scale: development of a standardized measure of the stigma of mental illness. Brithish Journal of Psychiatry, 190, 248-254.

Larson, J. E., y Corrigan, P. (2008). The stigma of families with mental illness. Academic psychiatry, 32(2), 87-91.

Lynn, M. R. (1986). Determination and quantification of content validity. Nursing Research, 35(6), 382-385.

Morris, E., Hippman, C., Murray, G., Michalak, E.E., Boyd, J.E., Livingston, J., Inglis, A., Carrion, P. y Austin, J. (2018). Self-Stigma in Relatives of people with Mental Illness scale: development and validation. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 1-6. doi: 10.1192/bjp.2017.23

Muñoz, M., Pérez-Santos, E., Crespo, M. y Guillén, A.I. (2009). El estigma de la enfermedad mental. Madrid: Editorial Complutense.

Navarro, N. (2013). Esquizofrenia e intervención familiar en España: Una revisión de las intervenciones psicológicas de los últimos diez años. Psychology, Society, & Education, 5, 139-150.

Organización Mundial de la Salud. (OMS). (2001). Informe sobre la Salud en el Mundo 2001. Salud mental: Nuevos conocimientos, nuevas esperanzas. Disponible en: http://www.who.int/whr/2001/es/index.html.

Ostman, M. y Kiellin, L. (2002). Stigma by association: psychological factors in relatives of people with mental illness. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 181,494-498.

Reever, K., Mathieu, E., Dennis, M.P. y Gitlin, L.N. (2004). Adult day services plus: augmenting adult day centers with systematic care management for family caregivers. Alzheimer’s Care Quarterly, 5, 332-339.

Ritsher, J., Otilingam, P.G. y Grajales, M. (2003). Internalizad Stigma of mental illness: Psychometric propertics of a new measure. Psychiatry Research, 121, 31-49.

Ritsher, J. B. y Phelan, J. C. (2004). Internalized stigma predicts erosion of morale among psychiatric out patients. Psychiatry Research, 129, 257-265.

Rusch, N., Abbruzzese, E., Hagedorn, E., Hartenhauer, D., Kaufmann, I., Curschellas J., Ventling, S., Zuaboni, G., Bridler, R., Olschewski, M., Kawohl, W., Rössler, W., Kleim, B. y Corrigan, P.W. (2014). Efficacy of Coming Out Proud to reduce stigma's impact among people with mental illness: pilot randomised controlled trial. (2014). The British Journal of Psychiatry, 204, 391-397.

Sartorious, N. y Schülze, H. (2005). Reducing the Stigma of mental illness: a report from a global association. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Schumacker, R. E., y Lomax, R. G. (2012). A beginner's guide to structural equation modeling. Routledge.

See Me Scotland. See me so far. (2003). A review of the first four years of the Scottish Anti Stigma campaign. Edimburgo: Scottish Executive.

Shibre, T., Negash, A., Kullgren, G., Kebede, D., Alem, A., Fekadu, A., Madhin, G. y Jacobbson, L. (2001). Perception of stigma among family members of individuals with schizophrenia and major affective disorders in rural Ethiopia. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 36, 299-303.

Silver, T. (1999). Families of persons with mental illness and substance use related disorders: Considerations for service delivery. Administration and Policy in Mental Health, 20, 361-367.

Thornicroft, G., Mehta, N., Clement, S., Evans-Lacko, S., Doherty, M., Rose, D., ... y Henderson, C. (2016). Evidence for effective interventions to reduce mental-health-related stigma and discrimination. The Lancet, 387(10023), 1123-1132.

Vaughn, C. y Leff, J. (1976). The measurement of expressed emotion in the families of psychiatric patients. British Journal of Social & Clinical Psychology, 15, 157-165.

Veltro, F., Magliano, L., Lobrace, S. y Morosini, P.L. (1994). Burden on key relatives of patients with schizophrenia vs neuroticdisorders: a pilot study. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 29, 66-70.

Published
02-08-2019
How to Cite
Trigueros, R., Aguilar-Parra, J. M., Cangas, A. J., Ortiz, L., & Navarro, N. (2019). Adaptation and validation to the spanish context of the scale of self-stigma in relatives of people with mental illness. Anales De Psicología / Annals of Psychology, 35(3), 371-377. https://doi.org/10.6018/analesps.35.3.343641
Section
Clinical and Health Psychology