Numeracy musical training for school children with low achievement in mathematics
The present case-control, double-blind, and prospective study investigated the effects of Numeracy Music Training (NMT) on cognitive skills of primary school children. Participating in the study were 42 children aged 8 to 10 years divided into two groups: Low Achievement in Math (n = 21), and Average Achievement in Math (n = 21). The children underwent two evaluations before and after NMT, where cognitive tests and behavior scales were applied that assessed variables such as school performance, IQ, working memory, numerical cognition, anxiety and stress. NMT was developed in eight group sessions and aimed to stimulate the systems of numerical cognition and integrate basic musical knowledge, and symbolic representations. After the intervention, through musical training, the children in both groups showed significant improvements in school performance, systems of numerical cognition and working memory, as well as the reduction of manifestation of mathematics anxiety.
Alloway, T. P., Gathercole, S. E., Kirkwood, H., and Elliott, J. (2009). The cognitive and behavioral characteristics of children with low working memory. Child Development, 80(2), 606-621. DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.2009.01282.x
Alloway, T. P. and Passolunghi, M. C. (2011). The relationship between working memory, IQ, and mathematical skills in children. Learning and Individual Differences, 21(1), 133-137. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lindif.2010.09.013
Anvari, S. H., Trainor, L. J., Woodside, J., and Levy, B. A. (2002). Relations among musical skills, phonological processing, and early reading ability in preschool children. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 83,111-120. DOI: 10.1016/S0022-0965(02)00124-8
American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-5). 5th ed. Arlington: APA; 2013.
Arias-Rodriguez, I., Nascimento, J. M., and Santos, F. H. (2017). Perfil de niños con déficits en la cognición numérica. Universitas Psychologica, 16(3). DOI: https://doi.org/10.11144/Javeriana.upsy16-3.pndc
Baddeley, A. D., and Hitch, G. J. (1974). Working memory. In B. G. (Ed.). The psychology learning and motivation (Vol. 8, pp. 47–90). New York Academic Press.
Bastos, J. A., Cecato, A. M. T., Martins, M. R. I., Grecca, K. R. R., and Pierini, R. (2016). The prevalence of developmental dyscalculia in Brazilian public school system. Arquivos de Neuro-psiquiatria, 74(3), 201-206. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0004-282X20150212
Cohen Kadosh, R., and Walsh, V. (2009). Numerical representation in the parietal lobes: Abstract or not abstract? Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 32, 313 328. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0140525X09990938
Costa-Giomi, E. (1999). The effects of three years of piano instruction on children’s cognitive development. Journal of Research in Music Education, 47, 198-212. DOI: http://dx.doi.org 10.2307/3345779
Da Silva, E. R., Baldin, M.S., and Santos, F. H. (2017). Cognitive effects of numeracy musical training in Brazilian preschool children: A prospective pilot study. Psychology and Neuroscience, 10(3), 281. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/pne0000098
Devine, A., Soltész, F., Nobes, A., Goswami, U., and Szűcs, D. (2013). Gender differences in developmental dyscalculia depend on diagnostic criteria. Learning and Instruction, 27, 31-39. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.learninstruc.2013.02.004
Esteki, M. (2013). Effectiveness of "Music Training" on reorganization of brain and poor intellectual abilities in female students with dyscalculia (7-9 years old). Global Journal of Arts Education, 3, 06-10. DOI: http://www.world-education-center.org/index.php/gjae/article/viewArticle/2836
Eugênio, M.; Escalda, J. and Lemos, S. (2012). Desenvolvimento cognitivo, auditivo e linguístico em crianças expostas à música: produção de conhecimento nacional e internacional. Revista CEFAC, 2012, vol. 14, no 5, p. 992-1003.
Gan, S. K. E., Lim, K. M. J., and Haw, Y. X. (2016). The relaxation effects of stimulative and sedative music on mathematics anxiety: A perception to physiology model. Psychology of Music, 44(4), 730-741. DOI: 10.1177/0305735615590430
Geary, D. C. (1993). Mathematical disabilities: Cognitive, neuropsychological, and genetic components. Psychological Bulletin, 114(2), 345. DOI: http://psycnet.apa.org/doi/10.1037/0033-2909.114.2.345
Herrera, A., and Maldonado, A. (2002). Depresión, cognición y fracaso académico. International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology, 2(1). DOI: http://www.redalyc.org/html/337/33720102/
Ho, Y. C. Cheung, M. C. and Chan, A. S. (2003). Music training improves verbal but not visual memory: cross-sectional and longitudinal explorations in children. Neuropsychology, 17(3), 439-450. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0894-4188.8.131.529
Iuculano, T., Rosenberg-Lee, M., Richardson, J., Tenison, C., Fuchs, L., Supekar, K., and Menon, V. (2015). Cognitive tutoring induces widespread neuroplasticity and remediates brain function in children with mathematical learning disabilities. Nature Communications, 6, 8453. DOI: 10.1038/ncomms9453
Katsh, S., and Merle-Fishman, C. (1985). The music within you. Barcelona Publishers.
Kaufmann, L., Mazzocco, M. M., Dowker, A., von Aster, M., Göbel, S. M., Grabner, R. H., and Nuerk, H. C. (2013). Dyscalculia from a developmental and differential perspective. Frontiers in Psychology, 4. DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00516
Kaufmann, L., and von Aster, M. (2012). The diagnosis and management of dyscalculia. Deutsches Ärzteblatt International, 109(45), 767. DOI: 10.3238/arztebl.2012.0767
Koelsch, S., and Siebel, W. A. (2005). Towards a neural basis of music perception. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 9(12), 578-584. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tics.2005.10.001
Krinzinger, H., Kaufmann, L., and Willmes, K. (2009). Math anxiety and math ability in early primary school years. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 27(3), 206-225. DOI: 10.1177/0734282908330583
Kucian, K., Grond, U., Rotzer, S., Henzi, B., Schönmann, C., Plangger, F., ... and von Aster, M. (2011). Mental number line training in children with developmental dyscalculia. NeuroImage, 57(3), 782-795. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2011.01.070
Lamminmaki, T., Ahonen, T.,and Todd de Barra, H. (1997) . Two-year group treatment for children with learning difficulties: Assessing effects of treatment duration and pretreatment characteristics. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 30, 354-364. DOI: 10.1177/002221949703000401
Lipp, E. M.N. and Lucarelli, M.D.M (1998). Escala de Stress Infantil (ESI). São Paulo: Casa do Psicólogo.
Machin, D., and Fayers, P. M. (2010). Randomized clinical trials: Design, practice and reporting. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ 9780470686232
Mazzocco, M. M. M. (2007). Defining and differentiating mathematical learning disabilities and difficulties. In D. B. Berch and M. M. M. Mazzocco (Eds.), Why is math so hard for some children? The nature and origins of mathematical learning difficulties and disabilities (pp. 29-47). Baltimore: Paul H Brookes Publishing.
Mazzocco, M. M., and Räsänen, P. (2013). Contributions of longitudinal studies to evolving definitions and knowledge of developmental dyscalculia. Trends in neuroscience and education, 2(2), 65-73. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tine.2013.05.001
Melby-Lervåg, M., and Hulme, C. (2013). Is working memory training effective? A meta-analytic review. Developmental psychology, 49(2), 270. DOI:10.1037/a0028228
Melo, R. M. D., Hanna, E. S., and Carmo, J. D. S. (2014). Ensino sem erro e aprendizagem de discriminação. Temas em Psicologia, 22(1), 207-222. DOI: 10.9788/TP2014.1-16
Menezes, Ebenezer Takuno de; Santos, Thais Helena dos. Verbete progressão continuada. Dicionário Interativo da Educação Brasileira - Educabrasil. São Paulo: Midiamix, 2001. Disponível em: http://www.educabrasil.com.br/progressao-continuada/. Acesso em: 14/12/2017.
Michels, L., O’Gorman,R., and Kucian, K.(2017). Functional hyperconnectivity vanishes in children with developmental dyscalculia after numerical intervention. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, 30, 291-303. DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2017.03.005
Moreno, S., Bialystok, E., Barac, R., Schellenberg, E. G., Cepeda, N. J., and Chau, T. (2011). Short-term music training enhances verbal intelligence and executive function. Psychological Science, 22(11), 1425-1433. DOI: 10.1177/0956797611416999
Pina, V., Fuentes, L. J., Castillo, A., and Diamantopoulou, S. (2014). Disentangling the effects of working memory, language, parental education, and non-verbal intelligence on children’s mathematical abilities. Frontiers in Psychology, 5, 415. DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00415
Ramírez, G., Chang, H., Maloney, E. A., Levine, S. C., and Beilock, S. L. (2016). On the relationship between math anxiety and math achievement in early elementary school: the role of problem solving strategies. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 141, 83-100. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jecp.2015.07.014
Räsänen, P., Salminen, J., Wilson, A. J., Aunio, P., and Dehaene, S. (2009). Computer-assisted intervention for children with low numeracy skills. Cognitive Development, 24(4), 450-472. DOI: 10.1016/j.cogdev.2009.09.003
Rauscher, F. H., Shaw, G. L., Levine, L. J., Wright, E. L., Dennis, W. R., and Newcomb, R. L.(1997). Music training causes long-term enhancement of preschool children's spatial-temporal reasoning. Neurological Research, 19(1), 2-8. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/01616412.1997.11740765
Rauscher, F., H., and Zupan, M. A. (2000). Classroom Keyboard Instruction Improves Kindergarten Children’s Spatial-Temporal Performance: A Field Experiment. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 15, 215–228. DOI: 10.1016/S0885-2006(00)00050-8
Ribeiro, F. S. and Santos, F. H. (2015). Métodos específicos para impulsionar a memória. In: Santos, F. H., Andrade, V. M. and Bueno, O. F. A. (Eds), Neuropsicologia hoje (2nd ed). Porto Alegre, RS: Artmed.
Ribeiro, F. S., and Santos, F.H. (2012). Treino musical e capacidade da memória operacional em crianças iniciantes, veteranas e sem conhecimentos musicais. Psicologia Reflexão e Crítica, 25, 559-567. DOI: http://www.scielo.br/revistas/prc/iaboutj.htm
Ribeiro, F. S., and Santos, F. H. (2017). Enhancement of numeric cognition in children with low achievement in mathematic after a non-instrumental musical training. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 62, 26-39. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ridd.2016.11.008
Roediger, H. L., and Butler, A. C. (2011). The critical role of retrieval practice in long-term retention. Trends in cognitive sciences, 15(1), 20-27. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tics.2010.09.003
Rubinsten, O., and Tannock, R. (2010). Mathematics anxiety in children with developmental dyscalculia. Behavioral and Brain Functions, 6(1), 46. DOI: 10.1186/1744-9081-6-46.
Sala, G., and Gobet, F. (2017). Does far transfer exist? Negative evidence from chess, music, and working memory training. Current directions in psychological science, 26(6), 515-520. DOI: 10.1177/0963721417712760
Santos, F. H. and Engel, P. M. J. (2008). Adaptação Brasileira da AWMA: “Automated Working Memory Assessment”. In: Ortiz, L., Mendonça, A., Foz, C. B.; Santos, D., Fuentes, D. A. Azambuja (Orgs.). Avaliação neuropsicológica: Panorama interdisciplinar dos estudos atuais na normatização e validação de instrumentos no Brasil. São Paulo, SP: Vetor.
Santos, F. H., Silva, P. A., Ribeiro, F. S., Dias, A. L. R. P., Frigério, M. C., Dellatolas, G., and von Aster, M. (2012). Number processing and calculation in Brazilian children aged 7-12 years. The Spanish Journal of Psychology, 15(02), 513-525. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5209/rev_SJOP.2012.v15.n2.38862
Schellenberg, E. G., and Mankarious, M. (2012). Music training and emotion comprehension in childhood. Emotion, 12(5), 887. DOI: 10.1037/a0027971
Schiavio, A., van der Schyff, D. 4E Music Pedagogy and the Principles of Self-Organization Behav. Sci. 2018, 8, 72; doi:10.3390/bs8080072
Silva, P. A., Ribeiro, F. S., and Santos, F. H. (2015). Cognição numérica em crianças com transtornos específicos de aprendizagem. Temas em Psicologia, 23(1), 197-210. DOI: 10.9788/TP2015.1-13
Silva, P. A., and Santos, F.H. (2012). Discalculia do Desenvolvimento: Avaliação da representação numérica pela ZAREKI-R. Psicologia: Teoria e Pesquisa, 27, 169-177. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0102-37722011000200003
Smedt, B., Noël, M. P., Gilmore, C., and Ansari, D. (2013). How do symbolic and non-symbolic numerical magnitude processing skills relate to individual differences in children's mathematical skills? A review of evidence from brain and behavior. Trends in Neuroscience and Education, 2(2), 48-55. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tine.2013.06.001
Snyder, M.C., and Bambara, L.M. (1997). Teaching secondary students with learning disabilities to self-manage classroom survival skills. Journal of learning disabilities, 30, 534-543. DOI: 10.1177/002221949703000509
Spelke, E. (2008). Effects of music instruction on developing cognitive systems at the foundations of mathematics and science. Learning, Arts, and the Brain, vol. 17. DOI: http://www.webmail.dana.org/uploadedFiles/News_and_Publications/Special_Publications/Learning,%20Arts%20and%20the%20Brain_ArtsAndCognition_Compl.pdf#page=27
Stein, L. M. (1994). TDE: Teste de Desempenho Escolar: manual para aplicação e interpretação. São Paulo: Casa do Psicólogo.
Von Aster, M., and Shalev, R. S. (2007). Number development and developmental dyscalculia. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 49, 868–873. DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-8749.2007.00868.x
Williamson, V. J., Baddeley, A. D., and Hitch, G. J. (2006). Music in working memory? Examining the effect of pitch proximity on the recall performance of non musicians. In 9th International Conference on Music Perception and Cognition (pp. 1581-1590). DOI:http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.603.5063yrep=rep1ytype=pdf
Wilson, A. J., Revkin, S. K., Cohen, D., Cohen, L., and Dehaene, S. (2006). An open trial assessment of" The Number Race", an adaptive computer game for remediation of dyscalculia. Behavioral and Brain Functions, 2(1), 20. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/1744-9081-2-20
World Health Organization (2018). The ICD-11 Classification of Mental and Behavioural Disorders: Diagnostic Criteria for Research. Geneva.
The works published in this journal are subject to the following terms:
1. The Publications Service of the University of Murcia (the publisher) retains the property rights (copyright) of published works, and encourages and enables the reuse of the same under the license specified in paragraph 2.
2. The works are published in the online edition of the journal under a Creative Commons Reconocimiento-CompartirIgual 4.0 (legal text). You can copy, use, distribute, transmit and publicly display, provided that: i) you cite the author and the original source of publication (journal, editorial and URL of the work), ii) are not used for commercial purposes, iii ) mentions the existence and specifications of this license.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
3. Conditions of self-archiving. Is allowed and encouraged the authors to disseminate electronically pre-print versions (version before being evaluated and sent to the journal) and / or post-print (version reviewed and accepted for publication) of their works before publication, as it encourages its earliest circulation and diffusion and thus a possible increase in its citation and scope between the academic community. RoMEO Color: Green.