Validation of the Dependency-Oriented and Achievement-Oriented Psychological Control Scale (DAPCS) in a Spanish-speaking late adolescent sample

  • Omar García-Pérez Universidad de Oviedo
  • Carmen Rodríguez-Menéndez Universidad de Oviedo
  • Susana Torío-López Universidad de Oviedo
  • Sara Rodríguez-Pérez Universidad Autónoma de Barcelona
Keywords: dependency-oriented psychological control, achievement-oriented psychological control, parenting, self-concept, adolescence


Parental psychological control refers to those parental behaviors that interfere with the child's thoughts and feelings and are characterized by excessive use of manipulative techniques, such as inducing guilt or shame and love-withdrawal. This study was aimed at validating the Spanish version of the Dependency-oriented and Achievement-oriented Psychological Control Scale (DAPCS), a new measure designed to assess an adolescent’s perception of psychological control. Another objective was to determine the influence of perceived parental psychological control on adolescents’ self-concept. We evaluated the factor structure, reliability, and convergent validity in a sample of Spanish late adolescents (N = 310, mean age = 19.75). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses showed that the DAPCS factor structure is best described by a 2-factor solution, for both paternal and maternal ratings, indicating the distinction between dependency-oriented and achievement-oriented psychological control. High indices of internal consistency indicated that DAPCS produced reliable scores. Moreover, convergent validity was confirmed by consistent associations between the DAPCS and other measures of psychological control and other parenting dimensions. Hierarchical regression also showed that DAPCS predicted late adolescents’ self-concept. The results of this study indicate that the Spanish version of the DAPCS is a useful instrument for studying both types of psychological control.


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Author Biographies

Omar García-Pérez, Universidad de Oviedo

Facultad de Formación del Profesorado y Educación

Carmen Rodríguez-Menéndez, Universidad de Oviedo

Facultad de Formación del Profesorado y Educación

Susana Torío-López, Universidad de Oviedo

Facultad de Formación del Profesorado y Educación


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How to Cite
García-Pérez, O., Rodríguez-Menéndez, C., Torío-López, S., & Rodríguez-Pérez, S. (2019). Validation of the Dependency-Oriented and Achievement-Oriented Psychological Control Scale (DAPCS) in a Spanish-speaking late adolescent sample. Anales De Psicología / Annals of Psychology, 35(3), 453-463.
Developmental and Educational Psychology