Testosterone hormone level changes in occlusion training applied with resistance exercise in young males


  • Seda Yalçin Faculty of Sports Sciences, Iğdır University, Turkey.
  • Malik Beyleroğlu Faculty of Sports Sciences, Sakarya University of Applied Sciences, Turkey.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.6018/sportk.562561
Palabras clave: Occlusion, exercise, testosterone, hormone


This study aimed to examine the changes in the testosterone hormone level of occlusion training applied with resistance exercise in young males. The study consisted of 36 (age 19.71±1.31 years) healthy young male participants. Participants were randomly divided into three groups; experiment1 (continuous BFR, blood flow restriction, + resistance exercise), experiment2 (intermittent BFR+ resistance exercise), and control (resistance exercise only). Groups performed the squat exercise for six sets with 70% of their 1 RM, two repetitions in each set and a 3-minute rest interval between sets. For the testosterone hormone test, blood samples were taken from the participants before, after and 15 minutes after the exercise. Repeated measures analysis of variance (Repeated Measures ANOVA) was used to analyze the data. In statistical analysis, the level of significance was accepted as p<.05. According to the results of the research, there was an increase in testosterone levels in the groups with continuous and intermittent BFR compared to the control group.


Los datos de descargas todavía no están disponibles.


Ahtiainen, J. P., Pakarinen, A., Kraemer, W. J., & Häkkinen, K. (2003). Acute hormonal and neuromuscular responses and recovery to forced vs. maximum repetitions multiple resistance exercises. International journal of sports medicine, 24(06), 410-418. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2003-41171

Anakwe, O. O., & Moger, W. H. (1984). β2-adrenergic stimulation of androgen production by cultured mouse testicular interstitial cells. Life sciences, 35(20), 2041-2047. https://doi.org/10.1016/0024-3205(84)90561-7

Amani-Shalamzari, S., Sarikhani, A., Paton, C., Rajabi, H., Bayati, M., Nikolaidis, P. T., & Knechtle, B. (2020). Occlusion training during specific futsal training improves aspects of physiological and physical performance. Journal of sports science & medicine, 19(2), 374.

Baechle, T. R., & Earle, R. W. (Eds.). (2008). Essentials of strength training and conditioning. Human kinetics.

Burgomaster, K. A., Moore, D. R., Schofield, L. M., Phillips, S. M., Sale, D. G., & Gibala, M. J. (2003). Resistance training with vascular occlusion: metabolic adaptations in human muscle. Medicine and science in sports and exercise, 35(7), 1203-1208. https://doi.org/10.1249/01.MSS.0000074458.71025.71

Campos, G. E., Luecke, T. J., Wendeln, H. K., Toma, K., Hagerman, F. C., Murray, T. F., ... & Staron, R. S. (2002). Muscular adaptations in response to three different resistance-training regimens: specificity of repetition maximum training zones. European journal of applied physiology, 88(1), 50-60. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-002-0681-6

Cerqueira, M. S., & de Brito Vieira, W. H. (2019). Effects of blood flow restriction exercise with very low load and low volume in patients with knee osteoarthritis: protocol for a randomized trial. Trials, 20(1), 1-9. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13063-019-3238-2

Conceicao, M. S., Gaspari, A. F., Ramkrapes, A. P., Junior, E. M., Bertuzzi, R., Cavaglieri, C. R., & Chacon-Mikahil, M. P. T. (2018). Anaerobic metabolism induces greater total energy expenditure during exercise with blood flow restriction. PLoS One, 13(3), e0194776. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0194776

Fry, C. S., Glynn, E. L., Drummond, M. J., Timmerman, K. L., Fujita, S., Abe, T., ... & Rasmussen, B. B. (2010). Blood flow restriction exercise stimulates mTORC1 signaling and muscle protein synthesis in older men. Journal of applied physiology, 108(5), 1199-1209. https://doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.01266.2009

Gotshalk, L. A., Loebel, C. C., Nindl, B. C., Putukian, M., Sebastianelli, W. J., Newton, R. U., ... & Kraemer, W. J. (1997). Hormonal responses of multiset versus single-set heavy-resistance exercise protocols. Canadian journal of applied physiology, 22(3), 244-255. https://doi.org/10.1139/h97-016

Hansen, S., Kvorning, T., Kjaer, M., & Sjøgaard, G. (2001). The effect of short‐term strength training on human skeletal muscle: the importance of physiologically elevated hormone levels. Scandinavian journal of medicine & science in sports, 11(6), 347-354. https://doi.org/10.1034/j.1600-0838.2001.110606.x

Karabulut, M., Abe, T., Sato, Y., & Bemben, M. G. (2010). The effects of low-intensity resistance training with vascular restriction on leg muscle strength in older men. European journal of applied physiology, 108(1), 147-155. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-009-1204-5

Karabulut, M., Mccarron, J., Abe, T., Sato, Y., & Bemben, M. (2011). The effects of different initial restrictive pressures used to reduce blood flow and thigh composition on tissue oxygenation of the quadriceps. Journal of sports sciences, 29(9), 951-958. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2011.572992

Kraemer, W. J., Volek, J. S., Bush, J. A., Putukian, M., & Sebastianelli, W. J. (1998). Hormonal responses to consecutive days of heavy-resistance exercise with or without nutritional supplementation. Journal of applied physiology, 85(4), 1544-1555. https://doi.org/10.1152/jappl.1998.85.4.1544

Kraemer, W. J., Ratamess, N. A., & Rubin, M. R. (2000). Basic principles of resistance training. In Nutrition and the strength athlete (pp. 1-21). CRC Press.

Kraemer, W. J., Ratamess, N. A., & Komi, P. (2003). Endocrine responses and adaptations to strength and power training. Strength and power in sport, 2, 361-86.

Kraemer, W. J., & Ratamess, N. A. (2005). Hormonal responses and adaptations to resistance exercise and training. Sports medicine, 35(4), 339-361.

Lin, H., Wang, S. W., Wang, R. Y., & Wang, P. S. (2001). Stimulatory effect of lactate on testosterone production by rat Leydig cells. Journal of cellular biochemistry, 83(1), 147-154. https://doi.org/10.1002/jcb.1213

Loenneke, J. P., Wilson, J. M., Pujol, T. J., & Bemben, M. G. (2011). Acute and chronic testosterone response to blood flow restricted exercise. Hormone and metabolic research, 43(10), 669-673. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0031-1286309

Lu, S. S., Lau, C. P., Tung, Y. F., Huang, S. W., Chen, Y. H., Shih, H. C., ... & Wang, P. S. (1997). Lactate and the effects of exercise on testosterone secretion: evidence for the involvement of a cAMP-mediated mechanism. Medicine and science in sports and exercise, 29(8), 1048-1054. https://doi.org/10.1097/00005768-199708000-00010

Madarame, H., Neya, M., Ochi, E., Nakazato, K., Sato, Y., & Ishii, N. (2008). Cross-transfer effects of resistance training with blood flow restriction. Medicine+ Science in Sports+ Exercise, 40(2), 258. https://doi.org/10.1249/mss.0b013e31815c6d7e

Madarame, H., Sasaki, K., & Ishii, N. (2010). Endocrine responses to upper-and lower-limb resistance exercises with blood flow restriction. Acta physiologica hungarica, 97(2), 192-200. https://doi.org/10.1556/aphysiol.97.2010.2.5

Manini, T. M., & Clark, B. C. (2009). Blood flow restricted exercise and skeletal muscle health. Exercise and sport sciences reviews, 37(2), 78-85. https://doi.org/10.1097/JES.0b013e31819c2e5c

Monazzami, A., Rajabi, H., Ghrakhanlou, R., Yari, K., & Rahimi, Z. (2017). Modulation of oxidative and glycolytic skeletal muscle fibers Na+/H+ exchanger1 (NHE1) and Na+/HCO3-co-transporter1 (NBC1) genes and proteins expression in type 2 diabetic rat (Streptozotocin+ high fat diet) following long term endurance training. Cellular and Molecular Biology, 63(5), 11-18.

Price, D. D., McGrath, P. A., Rafii, A., & Buckingham, B. (1983). The validation of visual analogue scales as ratio scale measures for chronic and experimental pain. Pain, 17(1), 45-56. https://doi.org/10.1016/0304-3959(83)90126-4

Pullinen, T., Mero, A., Huttunen, P., Pakarinen, A., & Komi, P. V. (2002). Resistance exercise-induced hormonal responses in men, women, and pubescent boys. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 34(5), 806-813.

Ratamess Jr, N. A. (2003). Effects of heavy resistance exercise volume on post-exercise androgen receptor content in resistance-trained men. University of Connecticut.

Sato, Y., Yoshitomi, A., & Abe, T. (2005). Acute growth hormone response to low-intensity KAATSU resistance exercise: comparison between arm and leg. International journal of KAATSU training research, 1(2), 45-50. https://doi.org/10.3806/ijktr.1.45

Sharifi, S., Monazzami, A., Nikousefat, Z., Heyrani, A., & Yari, K. (2020). The acute and chronic effects of resistance training with blood flow restriction on hormonal responses in untrained young men: A comparison of frequency. Cellular and Molecular Biology, 66(1), 1-8. https://doi.org/10.14715/cmb/2019.66.1.1

Takarada, Y., Takazawa, H., Sato, Y., Takebayashi, S., Tanaka, Y., & Ishii, N. (2000). Effects of resistance exercise combined with moderate vascular occlusion on muscular function in humans. Journal of applied physiology, 88, 2097.

Takarada, Y., Sato, Y., & Ishii, N. (2002). Effects of resistance exercise combined with vascular occlusion on muscle function in athletes. European journal of applied physiology, 86(4), 308-314. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-001-0561-5

Tremblay, M. S., Copeland, J. L., & Van Helder, W. (2004). Effect of training status and exercise mode on endogenous steroid hormones in men. Journal of applied physiology, 96(2), 531-539. https://doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00656.2003

Wernbom, M., Augustsson, J., & Raastad, T. (2008). Ischemic strength training: a low‐load alternative to heavy resistance exercise? Scandinavian journal of medicine & science in sports, 18(4), 401-416. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0838.2008.00788.x

West, S. G., Finch, J. F., & Curran, P. J. (1995). Structural equation models with nonnormal variables: Problems and remedies. APA PsycNet.

Wilson, J. M., Lowery, R. P., Joy, J. M., Loenneke, J. P., & Naimo, M. A. (2013). Practical blood flow restriction training increases acute determinants of hypertrophy without increasing indices of muscle damage. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 27(11), 3068-3075. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e31828a1ffa

Volek, J. S., Kraemer, W. J., Bush, J. A., Incledon, T., & Boetes, M. (1997). Testosterone and cortisol in relationship to dietary nutrients and resistance exercise. Journal of Applied Physiology, 82(1), 49-54. https://doi.org/10.1152/jappl.1997.82.1.49

Yasuda, T., Brechue, W. F., Fujita, T., Sato, Y., & Abe, T. (2008). Muscle activation during low-intensity muscle contractions with varying levels of external limb compression. Journal of sports science & medicine, 7(4), 467.

Yasuda, T., Brechue, W. F., Fujita, T., Shirakawa, J., Sato, Y., & Abe, T. (2009). Muscle activation during low-intensity muscle contractions with restricted blood flow. Journal of sports sciences, 27(5), 479-489. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640410802626567

Yasuda, T., Abe, T., Brechue, W. F., Iida, H., Takano, H., Meguro, K., ... & Nakajima, T. (2010). Venous blood gas and metabolite response to low-intensity muscle contractions with external limb compression. Metabolism, 59(10), 1510-1519. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.metabol.2010.01.016

Yasuda, T., Loenneke, J., Ogasawara, R., & Abe, T. (2013). Influence of continuous or intermittent blood flow restriction on muscle activation during low-intensity multiple sets of resistance exercise. Acta physiologica hungarica, 100(4), 419-426. https://doi.org/10.1556/APhysiol.100.2013.4.6

Yinghao, L., Jing, Y., Yongqi, W., Jianming, Z., Zeng, G., Yiting, T., & Shuoqi, L. (2021). Effects of a blood flow restriction exercise under different pressures on testosterone, growth hormone, and insulin-like growth factor levels. Journal of international medical research, 49(9), https://doi.org/10.1177/030006052110395

Cómo citar
Yalçin, S. ., & Beyleroğlu, M. . (2023). Testosterone hormone level changes in occlusion training applied with resistance exercise in young males . SPORT TK-Revista EuroAmericana de Ciencias del Deporte, 12, 8. https://doi.org/10.6018/sportk.562561