¿Lealtades cambiantes en críquet? Un estudio cualitativo longitudinal de los seguidores de la Superliga de Pakistán


  • A. Hasaan
DOI: https://doi.org/10.6018/sportk.461541
Palabras clave: Críquet, Marketing deportivo, Gestión deportiva, Lealtad de los seguidores


El críquet siempre ha sido conocido por sus competiciones de nivel internacional; sin embargo, recientemente se ha introducido el formato de liga. El propósito del presente estudio es investigar los motivos de la lealtad (y deslealtad) de los seguidores de este deporte en el contexto de la Superliga de Pakistán (PSL). Para ello, se estableció un estudio cualitativo longitudinal entre los seguidores de la PSL. El primer estudio se realizó antes del comienzo de la PSL y el segundo estudio se realizó al final de la PSL. Las respuestas de los participantes indicaron que los seguidores de la PSL tienen lealtades cambiantes y a corto plazo. El estudio identificó varias razones que motivan a los seguidores a separarse de un equipo / deportista y unirse a otro equipo / deportista. En el contexto de los equipos, se encontraron cuatro motivos: rendimiento, ubicación, el equipo en sí y el deportista; mientras que, en el contexto de los deportistas, se encontraron tres motivos diferentes: rendimiento, atributos fuera del campo y otros atributos dentro del campo. Los resultados de este estudio también se discuten en el contexto de la literatura previa.


Los datos de descargas todavía no están disponibles.


Aaker, D. (1991). Managing Brand Equity: Capitalizing on the Value of a Brand Name. New York: Free press.

Agyemang, K. J. A., Williams, A. S., & Kim, D. (2015). “Scandalous!”: Reputation, impression management, and employee assistance programs (EAPs) in the NBA. Sport Management Review, 18(4), 609–617.

Arai, A., Ko, Y. J., & Kaplanidou, K. (2013). Athlete brand image: scale development and model test. European Sport Management Quarterly, 13(4), 383–403.

Arai, A., Ko, Y. J., & Ross, S. (2014). Branding athletes: Exploration and conceptualization of athlete brand image. Sport Management Review, 17(2), 97–106.

Batra, R., & Homer, P. M. (2004). The Situational Impact of Brand Image Beliefs. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 14(3), 318–330.

Bauer, H. H., Sauer, N. E., & Exler, S. (2005). The loyalty of German soccer fans : does a team ’ s brand image matter ? International Journal of Sports Marketing & Sponsorship, (October), 14–23.

Bauer, H. H., Sauer, N., & Schmitt, P. (2005). Customer‐based brand equity in the team sport industry. European Journal of Marketing, 39(5/6), 496‐513.

Bauer, H. H., Stokburger-Sauer, N. E., & Exler, S. (2008). Brand image and fan loyalty in professional team sport: A Refined Model and Empirical Assessment. Journal of Sport Management, 22(2), 205–226.

Birks, M., Chapman, Y., & Francis, K. (2008). Memoing in Qualitative Research: Probing Data and Processes. Journal of Research in Nursing, 13(1), 68–75.

Biscaia, R., Correia, A., Ross, S., Rosado, A., & Maroco, J. (2013). Spectator-Based Brand Equity in Professional Soccer. Sport Marketing Quarterly, 22(1), 20–32.

Bodet, G., & Chanavat, N. (2010). Building global football brand equity: Lessons from the Chinese market. Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, 22(1), 55–66.

Bouchet, P., Hillairet, D., & Bodet, G. (2013). Sport Brands. New York: Routledge.

Bridgewater, S. (2010). Football Brands. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Bristow, D., & Sebastian, R. J. (2001). Holy cow! Wait ’til next year! A closer look at the brand loyalty of Chicago Cubs baseball fans. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 18(3), 256–275.

Butryn, T. M., & Masucci, M. A. (2003). It’s not about the Book: A Cyborg Counter Narrative of Lance Armstrong. Journal of Sport & Social Issues, 27(2), 124–144.

Chadwick, S., & Burton, N. (2008). From Beckham to Ronaldo -- Assessing the nature of football player brands. Journal of Sponsorship, 1(4), 307–317.

Charmaz, K. (2006). Constructing Grounded Theory: A Practical Guide Through Qualitative Analysis. London: Sage.

Clarke, A. (2005). Situational Analysis: Grounded Theory after the Postmodern Turn. Thousand Oaks, Calif: SAGE Publications.

Corbin, J., & Strauss, A. (2008). Basics Of Qualitative Research: Techniques And Procedures For Developing Grounded Theory (3rd ed.). London: Sage.

Cortsen, K. (2013). Annika Sörenstam – a hybrid personal sports brand. Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, 3(1), 37–62.

Crawford, G. (2002). Cultural Tourists and Cultural Trends Commercialization and the Coming of the Storm. Culture, Sport, Society, 5(1), 21–38.

Delia, E. B., & James, J. D. (n.d.). The meaning of team in team identification. Sport Management Review.

Dwyer, B. (2011). Divided Loyalty ? An Analysis of Fantasy Football Involvement and Fan Loyalty to Individual National Football League ( NFL ) Teams. Journal of Sport Management, 25, 445–457.

Elo, S., Kääriäinen, M., Kanste, O., Pölkk, T., Utriainen, K., & Kyngäs, H. (2014). Qualitative Content Analysis: A Focus on Trustworthiness. SAGE Open, 4(1), 1–10.

Ferrand, A., Robinson, L., & Valette-Florence, P. (2010). The intention-to repurchase paradox: a case of the health and fitness industry. Journal of Sport Management, 24(1), 83–105.

Funk, D. C., & James, J. D. (2006). Consumer loyalty: The meaning of attachment in the development of sport team allegiance. Journal of Sport Management, 20, 189–217.

Greenhalgh, G. P., Simmons, J. M., Hambrick, M. E., & Greenwell, T. C. (2011). Spectator support: examining the attributes that differentiate niche from mainstream sport. Sport Marketing Quarterly, 20(1), 41–52.

Hardy, S., Norman, B., & Sceery, S. (2012). Toward a history of sport branding. Journal of Historical Research in Marketing, 4(4), 482–509.

Hasaan, A. (2016). Establishing Athlete Brand in Cricket: Fan’s Perception about Foreign Cricketers in Pakistan Super League (PSL). Pamukkale Journal of Sport Sciences, 7(3), 23–39.

Hasaan, A., Biscaia, R., & Ross, S. (2019). Understanding Athlete Brand Life Cycle. Sport in Society. https://doi.org/10.1080/17430437.2019.1624722

Hasaan, A., Kerem, K., Biscaia, R., & Agyemang, K. J. A. (2016). Understanding the implications of athlete brand among fans. Technics Technologies Education Management, 11(1), 68–81.

Hasaan, A., Kerem, K., Biscaia, R., & Agyemang, K. J. A. (2018). A conceptual framework to understand the creation of athlete brand and its implications. Int. J. Sport Management and Marketing, 18(3), 169–198.

Hoye, R., Smith, A. C. T., Nicholson, M., & Stewart, B. (2015). Sport Management: Principles and Applications. New York: Routledge.

Keller, K. L. (1993). Conceptualizing, Measuring, Managing Customer-Based Brand Equity. Journal of Marketing, 57(1), 1–22.

Kunkel, T., Doyle, J., Funk, D. C., Du, J., & McDonald, H. (2016). The Development and Change of Brand Associations and Their Influence on Team Loyalty Over Time. Journal of Sport Management, 30(2), 117–134.

Kvale, S. (1996). InterViews: An Introduction to Qualitative Research Interviewing. Thousand Oaks: Sage.

Kwon, H., & Trail, G. (2001). Sport fan motivation: a comparison of American students and international students. Sport Marketing Quarterly, 10(2), 147–155.

Lee, C. W., & Aiken, K. D. (2010). Changing brand associations in Taiwan: Nike’s sponsorship of high-school basketball. Journal of Sponsorship, 3(3), 249–259.

Lin, Y. (2017). Influence of spectator motivation and team identification on team loyalty and switching intentions of sports fans. Advances In Management, 10(4), 7–17.

Lin, Y., & Lin, C. (2008). Factors Influencing Brand Loyalty in Professional Sports Fans. Global Journal of Business Research, 2(1), 69–85.

Lincoln, Y., & Guba, E. (1985). Naturalistic Inquiry. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Maderer, D., Holtbruegge, D., & Woodland, R. (2016). The impact of brand associations on brand loyalty in the football industry- A comparison of fans from developed and emerging football markets. Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, 6(5), 499–516.

Mai, L. ., & Canti, P. G. (2008). Dissolution of a person-brand relationship: An understanding of brand-detachment. European Advances in Consumer Research, 8, 421-430.

Marshall, C., & Rossman, G. B. (1995). Designing Qualitative Research (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks: Sage.

Martin, L., & Goldman, M. (2015). A process model of Sport fan detachment. African Journal for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and Dance, 21(3:2), 1030–1046.

Mason, J. (2002). Qualitative Researching (Second Edi). London: SAGE Publications.

McDonald, H., Karg, A. J., & Lock, D. (2010). Leveraging fans’ global football allegiances to build domestic league support. Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, 22(1), 67–89.

Milligan, A. (2009). Building a sports brand. Journal of Sponsorship, 2(3), 231–240.

Mullin, B. J., Hardy, S., & Sutton, W. (2014). Sport Marketing (4th ed.). Champaign: Human Kinetics.

Nucci, K. (2015). Building the Brand : The Difference in Brand Profiles between Team and Individual Athletes (Sport Management Undergraduate No. 109). New York.

Özdinç, Y., & Özdinç, Ö. (2015). Does message content matter in negative publicity? A study with young athletes emulating pros. Young Consumers, 16(3), 332–347.

Papp-Váry, Á. (2011). The use of sports celebrities in advertising: Best and worst practices. In Proceedings- 9th International Conference on Mangement, Enterprise and Benchmarking, Budapest, Hungary. Budapest.

Pappu, R., Quester, P., & Cooksey, R. (2005). Consumer-based brand equity: improving the measurement - empirical evidence. Journal of Product & Brand Management, 14(3), 143–154.

Park, C. W., Maclnnis, D., & Priester, J. (2006). Beyond attitudes: Attachment and consumer behavior. Seoul National Journal, 12(2), 3–36.

Parker, K., & Stuart, T. (1997). The West Ham Syndrome. Journal of the Market Research Society, 39(3), 509–517.

Parmentier, M.-A., & Fischer, E. (2012). How athletes build their brands. International Journal of Sport Management and Marketing, 11(1/2), 106–124.

Patton, M. Q. (2002). Qualitative research and evaluation methods. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Perrin-Martinenq, D. (2004). The role of brand detachment on the dissolution of the relationship between the consumer and the brand. Journal of Marketing Management, 20(9–10), 1001–1023.

Richardson, B., & O’Dwyer, E. (2003). Football supporters and football team brands: A study in consumer brand loyalty. Irish Marketing Review, 16, 43–53.

Richardson, B., & Turley, D. (2006). Support your local team: Resistance, subculture, and the desire for distinction. Advances in Consumer Research, 33(1), 175–180.

Rolfe, G. (2006). Validity, trustworthiness and rigour: quality and the idea of qualitative research. Journal of Advanced Nursing Nursing, 53(3), 304–310.

Ross, S. (2006). A conceptual framework for understanding Spectator-Based Brand Equity. Journal of Sport Management, 20(1), 22–38.

Ruspini, E. (2002). Introduction to Longitudinal Research. London: Routledge.

Saldaña, J. (2003). Longitudinal qualitative research: analyzing change through time. Oxford: AltaMira Press.

Su, J., & Tong, X. (2015). Brand personality and brand equity: evidence from the sportswear industry. Journal of Product & Brand Management, 24(2), 124–133.

Tainsky, S., & Stodolska, M. (2010). Population migration and team loyalty in professional sports. Social Science Quarterly, 91(3), 801–815.

Tapp, A. (2004). The loyalty of football fans - we’ll support you evermore? Database Marketing & Customer Strategy Management, 11(3), 203–215.

Williams, A. S., Kim, D., Agyemang, K. J. A., & Martin, T. G. (2015). All Brands Are Not Created Equal : Understanding the Role of Athletes in Sport-brand Architecture. Journal of Multidisciplinary Research, 7(3), 75–86.

Yoo, B., & Donthu, N. (2002). Testing cross-cultural invariance of the brand equity creation process. Journal of Product and Brand Management, 11(6), 380–398.

Yu, C. (2005). Athlete endorsement in the international sports industry: a case study of David Beckham. International Journal of Sports Marketing & Sponsorship, 6(3), 189–200.

Cómo citar
Hasaan , A. (2021). ¿Lealtades cambiantes en críquet? Un estudio cualitativo longitudinal de los seguidores de la Superliga de Pakistán. SPORT TK-Revista EuroAmericana De Ciencias Del Deporte, 10(1), 7-16. https://doi.org/10.6018/sportk.461541