Shaping the Other in the Standardization of English
The Case of the ‘Northern’ Dialect
This paper explores the other side of standardization by looking at one of the early modern regional varieties of English that remained outside the “consensus dialect” (Wright, 2000: 6). Drawing on Agha’s (2003) framework of enregisterment, I examine a selection of literary representations of the ‘northern’ dialect that are now included in The Salamanca Corpus (García-Bermejo Giner et al., 2011–), as well as contemporary lexicographical evidence on northern words. My aim is to provide a window into contemporary ideas that saw and constructed the North as the ‘other’, whilst showing, as a result, that such views were immediately relevant to how the dialect and their speakers were imagined and represented alongside the emerging standard. To do so, I undertake a twofold quantitative and qualitative analysis of the evidence to identify the repertoire of forms that were associated with the dialect and the values attributed to such forms.
Agha, A. (2003). The social life of cultural value. Language and Communication, 23, 231–273.
Amador-Moreno, C. & McCafferty, K. (2015). “[B]ut sure its only a penny after all”: Irish English discourse marker sure. In M. Dossena (Ed.), Transatlantic Perspectives on Late Modern English (pp. 179–197). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Auer, A. (2018). Urban literacies and processes of supralocalisation: A historical sociolinguistic perspective. In N. Braber & S. Jansen (Eds.), Sociolinguistics in England (pp. 13–34). London: Palgrave Macmillan.
Auer, A., Gordon, M. & Olson, M. (2016). English urban vernaculars, 1400–1700: Digitizing text from manuscript. In M. J. López-Couso, B. Méndez-Naya, P. Núñez-Pertejo & I. Palacios-Martínez (Eds.), Corpus Linguistics on the Move: Exploring and Understanding English through Corpora (pp. 21–40). Amsterdam: Brill/Rodopi.
Beal, J. C. (2000). From Geordie Ridley to VIZ: Popular literature in Tyneside English. Language and Literature, 9(4), 343–359.
Beal, J. C. (2004). The phonology of English dialects in the North of England. In B. Kortmann & E. Schneider (Eds.), A Handbook of Varieties of English (Vol. 1) (pp. 113–133). Berlin: De Gruyter.
Beal, J. C. (2009). Enregisterment, commodification, and historical context: “Geordie” versus “Sheffieldish”. American Speech, 84(2), 138–156.
Beal, J. C. (2010). An Introduction to Regional Englishes. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
Beal, J. C. (2016). Standardization. In M. Kytö & P. Pahta (Eds.), The Cambridge Handbook of English Historical Linguistics (pp. 301–317). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Beal, J. C. (2018). Dialect as heritage. In A. Creese & A. Blackledge (Eds.), The Routledge Handbook of Language and Superdiversity (pp. 165–181). London: Routledge.
Beal, J. C. & Cooper, P. (2015). The enregisterment of northern English. In R. Hickey (Ed.), Researching Northern English (pp. 27–50). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Blake, N. (1981). Non-standard Language in English Literature. London: André Deutsch.
Blank, P. (1996). Broken English: Dialects and the Politics of Language in Renaissance Writings. London: Routledge.
Blount, T. (1656). Glossographia. London: Printed by Tho[mas] Newcomb.
Brathwait, R. (1640). The Two Lancashire Lovers. London: Printed by E.G. for R.B.
Brome, R. (1632). The Northern Lasse. London: Printed by Aug. Mathewes.
Clark, U. (2013). ‘er’s from off: The indexicalization and enregisterment of Black Country dialect. American Speech, 88(4), 441–466.
Cooper, P. (2013). Enregisterment in Historical Contexts: A Framework. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, University of Sheffield, United Kingdom.
Cooper, P. (2014). “It takes a Yorkshireman to talk Yorkshire”: Towards a framework for the historical study of enregisterment. In A. Barysevich, A. D’Arcy & D. Heap (Eds.), Proceedings of Methods XIV: Papers from the 14th International Conference on Methods in Dialectology (pp. 158–169). Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang.
Cooper, P. (2015). Enregisterment in historical contexts: Nineteenth century Yorkshire dialect. Dialectologia, 14, 1–16.
Cooper, T. (1578). Thesaurus Linguae Romanae et Britannicae. Londini: Henry Denham. Retrieved 4 January, 2019 from https://leme.library.utoronto.ca/lexicons/1400/details#fulltext
Culpeper, J. & Kytö, M. (2010). Early Modern English Dialogues: Spoken Interaction as Writing. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Daines, S. (1640). Orthoepia Anglicana. London: Printed by Robert Young and Richard Badger. Retrieved 4 January 2019, from http://name.umdl.umich.edu/A19762.0001.001
Deloney, T. (1612). Thomas of Reading. London: Printed for T.P.
Fernández-Cuesta, J. & Rodríguez-Ledesma, N. (2004). Northern features in 15th and 16th-century legal documents from Yorkshire. In M. Dossena & R. Lass (Eds.), Methods and Data in English Historical Dialectology (pp. 287–308). Bern: Peter Lang.
Fox, A. (2000). Oral and Literate Culture in England 1500–1700. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
García-Bermejo Giner, M. F. (1999). The Northern/Scottish dialect in Nathaniel Woodes’A Conflict of Conscience (1581). Sederi, 9, 9–21.
García-Bermejo Giner, M. F. (2008). Early sixteenth-century evidence for [ɪə] < OE /ɑ:/ in the North? In M. F. García-Bermejo Giner & P. Sánchez-García (Eds.), Multidisciplinary Studies in Language and Literature: English, American and Canadian (pp. 59–63). Salamanca: Ediciones Universidad de Salamanca.
García-Bermejo Giner, M. F. (2013). The Southern dialect in Thomas Churchyard’s The Contention bettwixte Churchyearde and Camell (1552). In H. Sauer & G. Waxenberger (Eds.), Recording English, Researching English, Transforming English (pp. 245–263). Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang.
García-Bermejo Giner, M. F., Sánchez-García, P. & Ruano-García, J. (Eds.). (2011–). The Salamanca Corpus: A Digital Archive of English Dialect Texts. Salamanca. Retrieved 4 January, 2019 from http://salamancacorpus.usal.es/SC/index.html
Gil, A. (1619). Logonomia Anglica. London: Excudit Iohannes Beale.
Harrison, W. (1587). An Historicall Description of the Island of Britaine. In R. Holinshed (Ed.), The First and Second Volumes of the Chronicle (pp. 1–113). London: Printed [by Henry Denham].
Haugen, E. (1966). Dialect, language, nation. American Anthropologist, 68, 922–935.
Hernández-Campoy, J. M. (2016). Sociolinguistic Styles. Oxford: Wiley.
Hickes, G. (1689). Dictionariolum Islandicum. Ex Vocabulis, quæ in Grammatica Islandica Leguntur, Alphabetico Ordine Digestis, Conflatum. Oxford: Theatro Sheldoniano.
Hickey, R. (2003). Corpus Presenter: Software for Language Analysis. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Hickey, R. (2012). Standard English and standards of English. In R. Hickey (Ed.), Standards of English: Codified Varieties around the World (pp. 1–33). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Hodson, J. (2016). Talking like a servant: What nineteenth-century novels can tell us about the social history of the language. Journal of Historical Sociolinguistics, 2(1), 27–46.
Hogarth, R. (1689). Gazophylacium Anglicanum. London: Printed by E.H. and W.H. for Randall Taylor.
Johnstone, B. (2006). How to speak like a Pittsburghese: Exploring the role of a folk dictionary in the production of a dialect. Carnegie Mellon University Papers, 1–11.
Johnstone, B., Andrus, J. & Danielson, A. E. (2006). Mobility, indexicality, and the enregisterment of “Pittsburghese”. Journal of English Linguistics, 34(2), 77–104.
Kennett, W. (c. 1696). Etymological Collections of English Words and Provincial Expressions. Edited by J. Ruano-García. 2018. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Kytö, M., Walker, T. & Grund, P. (2007). English witness depositions 1560–1760: An electronic text edition. ICAME Journal, 31, 65–86.
Lacy, J. (1684). Sir Hercules Buffoon, or the Poetical Squire. London: Printed for John Hindmarsh.
Milroy, J. (2001). Language ideologies and the consequences of standardization. Journal of Sociolinguistics, 5(4), 530–555.
Milroy, J. & Milroy, L. (1999). Authority in Language: Investigating Standard English. (3rd ed.). London: Routledge.
Nevalainen, T. & Tieken Boon van Ostade, I. (2006). Standardisation. In R. Hogg & D. Denison (Eds.), A History of the English Language (pp. 271–311). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Nicolson, W. (1677). Glossarium Brigantinum. Nicolson’s MSS, Vol. 1 (pp. 355–507). Cumbrian Archive.
Nowell, L. (c. 1567). Vocabularium Saxonicum. Retrieved 4 January, 2019 from https://leme.library.utoronto.ca/lexicons/65/details#fulltext
OED = Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Retrieved 4 January, 2019 from http://www.oed.com/
Paravano, C. (2018). Performing Multilingualism on the Caroline Stage in the Plays of Richard Brome. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.
Penhallurick, R. & Willmott, A. (2000). Dialect / ‘England’s dreaming’. In R. Penhallurick (Ed.), Debating Dialect: Essays on the Philosophy of Language (pp. 5–45). Cardiff: University of Wales Press.
Phillips, E. (1658). The New World of English Words. London: Printed by E. Tyler for Nath. Brooke. Retrieved 4 January, 2019 from https://leme.library.utoronto.ca/lexicons/497/details#fulltext
Picone, M. (2014). Literary dialect and the linguistic reconstruction of nineteenth-century Louisiana. American Speech, 89(2), 143–169.
Ray, J. (1674). A Collection of English Words not Generally Used. London: Printed by H. Bruges for Tho[mas] Barrell.
Ruano-García, J. (2010). Early Modern Northern English Lexis: A Literary Corpus-Based Study. Bern: Peter Lang.
Ruano-García, J. (2012). On the enregisterment of the northern dialect in Early Modern English: An evaluation across literary text-types. In S. Martín Alegre, M. Moyer, E. Pladevall & S. Tubau (Eds.), At a Time of Crisis: English and American Studies in Spain (pp. 376–383). Barcelona: Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona/AEDEAN.
Ruano-García, J. (2014). Cumbrian lexis in the English Dialect Dictionary: William Nicolson’s Glossarium Brigantinum (1677) in focus. Dictionaries, 35, 162–186.
Ruano-García, J. (2015). Northern ascriptions in MS Lansdowne 1033: George Hickes’s Dictionariolum Islandicum in focus. Historiographia Linguistica, 42(1), 21–38.
Ruano-García, J. (2020). On the enregisterment of the Lancashire dialect in Late Modern English: Spelling in focus. Journal of Historical Sociolinguistics, 6(1). doi: 10.1515/jhsl-2018-0024
Ruano-García, J., Sánchez-García, P. & García-Bermejo Giner, M. F. (2015). Northern English: Historical lexis and spelling. In R. Hickey (Ed.), Researching Northern English (pp. 131–158). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Schwegler, R. (1980). Oral tradition and print: Domestic performance in Re¬naissance England. The Journal of American Folklore, 93/370, 435–441.
Shorrocks, G. (1996). Non-standard dialect literature and popular culture. In J. Klemola, M. Kytö & M. Rissanen (Eds.), Speech Past and Present: Studies in English Dialectology in Memory of Ossi Ihalainen (pp. 385–411). Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang.
Silverstein, M. (1976). Shifters, linguistic categories, and cultural description. In B. G. Blount (Ed.), Language, Culture, and Society: A Book of Readings (pp. 187–221). Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland.
Silverstein, M. (2003). Indexical order and the dialectics of sociolinguistic life. Language and Communication, 23(3), 193–229.
Spenser, E. (1579). The Shepheardes Calender. London: Printed by Hugh Singleton.
Stein, G. (2014). Sir Thomas Elyot as Lexicographer. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Trudgill, P. (1990). The Dialects of England. Oxford: Blackwell.
Verstegan, R. (1605). A Restitution of Decayed Intelligence. Antwerp: Robert Bruney.
Wakelin, M. (1991). English Dialects: An Introduction. London: The Athlone Press.
Wales, K. (2004). North of the Trent: Images of northern-ness and northern English in the eighteenth century. In H. Berry & J. Gregory (Eds.), Creating and Consuming Culture in North-East England, 1660–1830 (pp. 24–36). Ashgate: Aldershot.
Wales, K. (2006). Northern English: A Social and Cultural History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Wales, K. (2010). Northern English in writing. In R. Hickey (Ed.), Varieties of English in Writing: The Written Word as Linguistic Evidence (pp. 61–80). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Warner, W. (1586). Albions England. London: Printed by George Robinson for Thomas Cadman.
Willcock, G. & Walker, A. (Eds.). (1970). The Arte of English Poesie by George Puttenham. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Wright, J. (Ed.). (1896–1905). English Dialect Dictionary (6 Vols.). Oxford: Henry Frowde.
Wright, L. (2000). Introduction. In L. Wright (Ed.), The Development of Standard English 1300–1800: Theories, Descriptions, Conflicts (pp. 1–8). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
The works published in this journal are subject to the following terms:
1. The Publications Services at the University of Murcia (the publisher) retains the property rights (copyright) of published works, and encourages and enables the reuse of the same under the license specified in item 2.
2. The works are published in the electronic edition of the magazine under a Creative Commons Attribution Non-commercial Share Alike 4.0.
3.Conditions of self-archiving. Authors are encouraged to disseminate pre-print (draft papers prior to being assessed) and/or post-print versions (those reviewed and accepted for publication) of their papers before publication, because it encourages distribution earlier and thus leads to a possible increase in citations and circulation among the academic community.
RoMEO color: green