Factors in cyber bullying: the attitude-social influence-efficacy model
This study examines the correlation between risk perception, knowledge, social influence, self-efficacy, and cyber bullying behavior from the perspective of the attitude-social influence-efficacy model. The samples in this survey are adolescents who have had cyber bullying behavior or have witnessed their peers’ cyber bullying behavior. The results showed that attitude towards cyber bullying affected cyber bullying intention, and that intention also influenced cyber bullying behavior. Social influence also had an impact on cyber bullying intention and cyber bullying behavior. In fact, intention was a mediator between attitude and behavior, as well as between social influence and behavior.
Bandura, A.(1993). Perceived self-efficacy in cognitive development and functioning. Educational Psychologist, 28, 117-148.
Bandura, A. (1986). Social Foundations of Thought and Action: A Social Cognitive Theory. Prentice Hall, New York.
Bandura, A. (1991). Social cognitive theory of moral thought and action. In W. M. Kurtines & J. L. Gewirtz (Eds.), Handbook of moral behavior and development (Vol. 1, pp. 45-103). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological Review, 84, 191-215.
Barlett, C., & Coyne, S.M. (2014). A Meta‐Analysis of Sex Differences in Cyber‐Bullying Behavior: The Moderating Role of Age. Aggressive Behavior, 40, 474–488.
Belsey, B. (2007). Cyberbullying: a real and growing threat. ATA Magazine, 88, 14–21.
Brug, J., Lechner, L., & De Vries, H.(1995). Psychosocial determinants of fruit and vegetable consumption. Appetite,25,285-296.
Calder, B. J., Phillips, L. W., & Tybout, A. M. (1981). Designing research for application. Journal of Consumer Research, 8, 197-207.
Chang, C.H., Ko, H.C., Wu, J.Y., & Cheng, C.P.(2007). Social cognitive determinants of betel quid chewing among college students in southern Taiwan: a revised Attitudes-Social Influence-Efficacy Model. Addictive Behaviors, 32, 2345-2350.
Chang, H.P.(2013). The Effects of Therapeutic Relationship on an Adolescent Victim of Bullying: A Case Study. Chinese Journal of Guidance and Counseling, 28,29-56.
Chang H.P.(2013). The Effects of Therapeutic Relationship on an Adolescent Victim of Bullying: A Case Study. Chinese Journal of Guidance and Counseling, 38,29 – 55.
Chen, H.C., Ko, H.C., Lee, K.H., & Lin, M.P.(2010). Depression, Cognitive Determinants, and Social Influence in Explaining Betel Nut Chewing among College Students in Southern Taiwan. Formosa Journal of Mental Health, 23, 587 – 612.
Chen, H.Y.(2008). A Structural Model of Drug Use Behaviors among Aboriginal Adolescents in Taiwan: Factors of Ethnic Identity, Personality, Social Learning, and Beliefs about Drug Use. Bulletin of Educational Psychology, 39, 335-354.
Child Welfare League Foundation(2014). Survey report of school bullying phenomenon in Taiwan in 2014. http://www.children.org.tw/news/advocacy_detail/1174
Chiou, J. S., Droge, C., & Hanvanich, S.(2002). Does Customer Knowledge Affect How Loyalty Is Formed. Journal of Service Research, 5(2), 113-124.
Churchill, G.A. (1979).A paradigm for developing better measures of marketing constructs. Journal of Marketing Research, 16(1), 64-73.
de Vries, H., Mudde, A., Leijs, I., Charlton, A., Vartiainen, E., Buijs, G., Clemente ,M.P., Storm, H., González Navarro, A., Nebot, M., Prins, T., &Kremers, S.(2003). The European Smoking Prevention Framework Approach (EFSA): an example of integral prevention. Health education research, 18(5), 611-626.
Dehue, F., Bolman, C., & Vollink, T. (2008). Cyberbullying: Youngsters' experiences and parental perception. Cyberpsychology & Behaviour, 11(2), 217–225.
Eslea, M., & Smith, P.K.(2012). Pupil and parent attitudes towards bullying in primary schools. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 15(2),207-219.
Fishbein, M., & Ajzen, I. (1975). Belief, Attitude, Intention and Behavior: An Introduction to Theory and Research. Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA.
Fosse, G. K., & Holen, A. (2006). Childhood maltreatment in adult female psychiatric outpatients with eating disorders. Eating Behaviours, 7, 404–409.
Fu, T.T., Liu, J.T., Kan, K.H., & Lai, W.L.(2001). Health risk perception and cigarette smoking behavior: the case of Taiwan. Academia Economic Papers, 29(1), 91-118.
Gollwitzer, P.M., & Schaal, B. (1998). Metacognition in action: the importance of implementation intentions. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 2, 124-136.
Graham, S., Bellmore, A. D., & Mize, J. (2006). Peer victimization, aggression, and their co-occurrence in middle school: Pathways to adjustment problems. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 34, 363-378.
Hazzard, A., & Angert, L. (1986). Knowledge, attitudes and behavior in children with asthma. Journal of Asthma, 23(2), 61－67.
Hinduja, S., & Patchin, J. W. (2009). Bullying beyond the schoolyard: Preventing and responding to cyber bullying. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
Holfeld, B.(2014). Perceptions and attributions of bystanders to cyber bullying. Computers in Human Behavior, 38, 1–7.
Hong, J.C., Lin, C.H., Hwang, M.Y., Hu, R.P., & Chen, Y.L.(2014). Positive affect predicting worker psychological response to cyber-bullying in the high-tech industry in Northern Taiwan. Computers in Human Behavior, 30, 307-314.
Hsu, L.L., Hsu, T.H., Tang, J.W., & Chen, C.C.(2011). An Empirical Study of Social Influence and Community Characteristics Impact Bloggers’ Perceived Task Value and Blog Continuous Usage Intention in Blog Context. Journal of E-Business, 13(4), 781-816.
Hsu, M.H., & Kuo, F.Y., Sun, S.Y.(2000). Ethical Computer Self-efficacy: Development and Test of a Measure of Ethical Self-efficacy for Software Piracy. Journal of Information Management ,7(1), 85 – 102.
Huang, C.S.(2011). The New Issue in the Coming of Aged Society: A Study of Elementary and Secondary Students’ Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior Intention toward Aging. Curriculum & Instruction Quarterly, 14(2), 193-216.
Huang, Y. Y., & Chou, C. (2010). An analysis of multiple factors of cyberbullying among junior high school students in Taiwan. Computers in Human Behavior, 26, 1581-1590.
Kim, Y. S., Koh, Y. J., & Leventhal, B. (2005). School bullying and suicidal risk in Korean, middle school students. Pediatrics, 115, 357-363.
Kokkinos, C.M., Antoniadou, N., & Markos, A.(2014). Cyber-bullying: An investigation of the psychological profile of university student participants. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 35, 204-214.
Lascu, D., & Zinkhan, G. (1999). Consumer conformity: Review and applications for marketing theory and practice. Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, 7(3), 1-12.
Liao, G.L., Huang, T.C.K., Chang, J.C., & Liu, C.C.(2012). The Empirical Study of Cyberbully in Taiwan. Information and Management Science, 5(1), 31-55.
Lin, M.Q.(2004). The Study of the Influence of Knowledge Resources, Knowledge Characteristics and Knowledge Flow Mechanisms on the Performance of Knowledge Transfer -Verifying on the Staff of International Retailing S. Journal of Management, 21(6),801 – 826.
Lin, Y.J., Wu, W.C., Lee, C.Y., Lin, D.C., & Chiang, Y.C.(2014). Effects of social network indicators and positions in class on bullied experiences among junior high school students in Taiwan. Taiwan J Public Health, 33(4), 397-409.
Liou, J.L., & Wu, P.I.(2009). Censored Quantile Regression for the Decision of Alcohol Consumption under Heterogeneous Risk Perceptions. Taiwan Journal of Applied Economics, 86, 95-137.
Liou, J.L., & Wu, P.I.(2013). Health Risk Perception and Happiness for Smoking Decision: Behavior under Rationality and Perceptibility. Agriculture and Economics, 50,1-39.
Macdonald, C.D., & Bridget, R.P. (2010). Cyberbullying among college student: prevalence and demographic differences. Procedia social and Behavioral Sciences(9), 2003-2009.
Ministry of Education, Taiwan(2011). https://csrc.edu.tw/bully/bullying.asp.
Mishna, F., Khoury-Kassabri, M., Gadalla, T., & Daciuk, J.(2012). Risk factors for involvement in cyber bullying: Victims, bullies and bully–victims. Children and Youth Services Review, 34 , 63–70.
Petty, R.E., & Cacioppo, J.T.(1986). The Elaboration Likelihood Model of Persuasion. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 19, 123-205.
Prochaska, J.O., & DiClemente, C.C. (1983). Stages and processes of self change of smoking: toward an integrative model of change. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 51(3), 390-395.
Shariff, S., & Gouin, R. (2005). Cyber- dilemmas: Gendered hierarchies free expression and cyber-safety in schools. Paper presented at safety and security in a networked world: Balancing cyber-rights and responsibilities. Oxford Internet Institute Conference, on September 8, 2005, Oxford, U.K.
Srabstein, J.C. & Leventhal, B.L.(2010). Prevention of bullying-related morbidity and mortality: a call for public health policies. Bulletin of the World Health Organization ,88, 403-403.
Tan, C.H., & Hung, C.H.(2006). The Effect of Attitude, Social Influences and Self-Efficacy on Asthmatic Adolescents’ Self-Management Intentions. Journal of Evidence-Based Nursing, 2(1), 24-33.
Tokunaga, R. S. (2010). Following you home from school: A critical review and synthesis of research on cyberbullying victimization. Computers in Human Behavior, 26(3), 277–287.
van Goethem, A.A., Scholte, R.H., & Wiers, R.W.(2010). Explicit- and implicit bullying attitudes in relation to bullying behavior. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 38(6),829-842.
Viscusi, W. K. (1991). Age Variations in Risk Perceptions and Smoking Decisions. The Review of Economics and Statistics, 73, 577-588.
Weinstein, N.D. (1988). The precaution adoption process. Health Psychology,7, 355-386.
Wu, M.L.,& Jian, M.R.(2009). An Investigation to Cyber Bullying Behavior among Teenagers. Secondary Education, 60(3), 90-109.
Yang, J.L., Chang, F.C., Chi, H.Y., & Huang, L.J.(2015). Knowledge, attitudes, and behavior regarding correct analgesic use among senior/vocational high school students in Taiwan. Taiwan Journal of Public Health, 34(1), 61-73.
Yang, M.Y., & Ke ,Y.T.(2015). Why Speak Up? The Effects of Voice Self-Efficacy and Group Voice Behavior on Individual Voice Behavior. NTU Management Review, 25(3), 39 – 66.
Ybarra, M. L., Diener-West, M., & Leaf, P. J. (2007). Examining the overlap in Internet harassment and school bullying: Implications for school intervention. Journal of Adolescent Health, 41(6), 42–50.
The works published in this journal are subject to the following terms:
1. The Publications Service of the University of Murcia (the publisher) retains the property rights (copyright) of published works, and encourages and enables the reuse of the same under the license specified in paragraph 2.
2. The works are published in the online edition of the journal under a Creative Commons Reconocimiento-CompartirIgual 4.0 (legal text). You can copy, use, distribute, transmit and publicly display, provided that: i) you cite the author and the original source of publication (journal, editorial and URL of the work), ii) are not used for commercial purposes, iii ) mentions the existence and specifications of this license.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
3. Conditions of self-archiving. Is allowed and encouraged the authors to disseminate electronically pre-print versions (version before being evaluated and sent to the journal) and / or post-print (version reviewed and accepted for publication) of their works before publication, as it encourages its earliest circulation and diffusion and thus a possible increase in its citation and scope between the academic community. RoMEO Color: Green.