A social cognitive model of entrepreneurial intentions in university students

  • Ana Lanero Universidad de León Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y Empresariales Campus de Vegazana s/n; 24071 León
  • José-Luis Vázquez Universidad de León
  • Alfredo Muñoz-Adánez Universidad Complutense de Madrid
Keywords: Entrepreneurship, entrepreneurial intentions, Social Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT), career choice, entrepreneurial self-efficacy, university students, structural equations


This work analyzes the limitations of previous literature on entrepreneurial intentions of university students and set a model of entrepreneurship career choice based on the Social Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT) developed by Lent, Brown and Hackett (1994, 2000). Particularly, the study hypothesizes a sequential direct path between entrepreneurial vocational interests, intentions and nascent behaviors, which in turn would be triggered and reinforced by the beliefs of self-efficacy and outcome expectations attributed to business start-up. To test the hypotheses of the model, an empirical study carried out with 400 university students within different knowledge areas is described. The results obtained, using the PLS (Partial Least Squared) technique confirm a positive direct link between entrepreneurial interests, intentions and behaviors, while perceived entrepreneurial self-efficacy predicts that goal sequence. Otherwise, outcome expectations only impacts on vocational interest in business start-up. These findings have important implications for the design of entrepreneurship support programs in university environments.

Author Biographies

Ana Lanero, Universidad de León Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y Empresariales Campus de Vegazana s/n; 24071 León
Departamento de Dirección y Economía de la Empresa. Profesora Ayudante Doctora.
José-Luis Vázquez, Universidad de León
Departamento de Dirección y Economía de la Empresa. Profesor Titular de Universidad.
Alfredo Muñoz-Adánez, Universidad Complutense de Madrid
Departamento de Psicología Social. Profesor Titular de Universidad.


Ajzen, I. (1987). Attitudes, traits, and actions: Dispositional prediction of behavior in social psychology. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 20, 1-63.

Ajzen, I. (1991). The theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50, 179-211.

Ajzen, I. (2001). Nature and operation of attitudes. Annual Review of Psychology, 52, 27-58.

Ajzen, I. (2002). Perceived behavioral control, self-efficacy, locus of control, and the theory of planned behavior. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 32, 665-683.

Ajzen, I. y Fishbein, M. (1980). Understanding Attitudes and Predicting Social Behavior. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Aldrich, H. E. y Martínez, M. A. (2001). Many are called but few are chosen: An evolutionary perspective for the study of entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 25(4), 41-56.

Alemany, L., Álvarez, C., Planellas, M. y Urbano, D. (2011). Libro Blanco de la Iniciativa Emprendedora en España. ESADE Entrepreneurship Institute.

Alsos, G. A. y Kolvereid, L. (1998). The business gestation process of novice, serial, and parallel business founders. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 22(4), 101-114.

Arenius, P. y Minniti, M. (2005). Perceptual variables and nascent entrepreneurship. Small Business Economics, 24, 233-247.

Autio, E., Keeley, R. H., Klofsten, M. y Ulfstedt, T. (1997). Entrepreneurial intent among students: Testing an intent model in Asia, Scandinavia and USA. Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research, Babson Conference Proceedings. Recuperado el 21 de septiembre de 2010, de http://www.babson.edu/entrep/fer.

Bagozzi, R. P. y Yi, Y. (1991). Multitrait-multimethod matrices in consumer research. Journal of Consumer Research, 17, 426-439.

Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioural change. Psychological Review, 84, 191-215.

Bandura, A. (1986). Social Foundations of Thought and Action: A Social Cognitive Theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The Exercise of Control. Nueva York: Freeman.

Barclay, D., Higgins, C. y Thompson, R. (1995). The Partial Least Squares (PLS) approach to causal modelling: Personal computer adoption and use as an illustration. Technology Studies, 2, 285-309.

Betz, N. E. (2008). Advances in vocational theories. En S. D. Brown y R. W. Lent (Eds.), Handbook of Counseling Psychology (4ª ed., pp. 357-374). Nueva York: Wiley.

Bird, B. (1988). Implementing entrepreneurial ideas: The case for intentions. Academy of Management Review, 13, 442-454.

Blanco, A. (2009). El modelo cognitivo social del desarrollo de la carrera: Revisión de más de una década de investigación empírica. Revista de Educación, 350, 423-445.

Bollen, K. A. (1989). Structural Equations with Latent Variables. Nueva York: Wiley.

Bonnett, C. y Furnham, A. (1991). Who wants to be an entrepreneur? A study of adolescents interested in a Young Enterprise scheme. Journal of Economic Psychology, 12, 465-478.

Boyd, N. y Vozikis, G. S. (1994). The influence of self-efficacy on the development of entrepreneurial intentions and actions. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 14(1), 63-77.

Brenner, O. C., Pringle, C. D. y Greenhaus, J. H. (1991). Perceived fulfillment of organizational employment versus entrepreneurship: Work values and career intentions of business college graduates. Journal of Small Business Management, 29(3), 62-74.

Brown, S. D. (Ed.). (2002). Career Choice and Development. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Carter, N. M., Gartner, W. B. y Reynolds, P. D. (1996). Exploring start-up event sequences. Journal of Business Venturing, 11, 151-166.

Carter, N. M., Gartner, W. B., Shaver, K. y Gatewood, E. (2003). The career reasons of nascent entrepreneurs. Journal of Business Venturing, 18, 13-39.

Cassar, G. (2007). Money, money, money? A longitudinal investigation of entrepreneur career reasons, growth preferences and achieved growth. Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, 19, 89-107.

Chandler, G. N. y Lyon, D. W. (2001). Issues of research design and construct measurement in entrepreneurship research: The past decade. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 25(4), 101-113.

Chen, C. C., Greene, P. G. y Crick, A. (1998). Does entrepreneurial self-efficacy distinguish entrepreneurs from managers? Journal of Business Venturing, 13, 295-316.

Chin, W. W. (1998a). Issues and opinion on structural equation modeling. MIS Quarterly, 22(1), 7-16.

Chin, W. W. (1998b). The partial least squares approach to structural equation modeling. En A. George (Ed.), Modern Methods for Business Research (pp. 295-336). New Jersey: Laurence Erlbaum Associates.

Chin, W. W., Marcolin, B. L. y Newsted, P. R. (2003). A partial least squares latent variable modeling approach for measuring interaction effects: Results from a Monte Carlo simulation study and an electronic mail emotion/adoption study. Information Systems Research, 14, 189-217.

Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Collins, L., Hannon, P. D. y Smith, A. (2004). Enacting entrepreneurial intent: The gaps between student needs and higher education capability. Education + Training, 46, 454-463.

Comisión Europea. (2000b). Carta Europea de la Pequeña Empresa. Recuperado el 17 de Septiembre de 2012, de http://ec.europa.eu/enterprise/policies/sme/files/charter /docs/charter_es.pdf

Comisión Europea (2006). Entrepreneurship Education in Europe: Fostering Entrepreneurial Mindsets through Education and Learning. Final proceedings. Oslo: Autor.

Comisión Europea (2008). Comunicación de la Comisión Europea al Parlamento Europeo, al Consejo, al Comité Económico y Social Europeo y al Comité de las Regiones “pensar primero a pequeña escala”. “Small Business Act” para Europa: Iniciativa en favor de las pequeñas empresas. (COM -2008- 394 final, de 25.06.2008). Bruselas: Autor.

Comisión Europea. (2010). Entrepreneurship Survey in the EU and beyond. A Survey in the EU, EFTA countries, Croatia, Turkey, the US, Japan, South Korea and China. Analytical Report. Bruselas: Organización Gallup.

Davidsson, P. (1995, noviembre). Determinants of entrepreneurial intentions. Ponencia presentada en la Conferencia RENT IX Workshop in Entrepreneurship Research, Piacenza, Italia.

Davidsson, P. y Honig, B. (2003). The role of social and human capital among nascent entrepreneurs. Journal of Business Venturing, 18, 301-331.

De Noble, A., Jung, D. y Ehrlich, S. (1999). Entrepreneurial self-efficacy: The development of a measure and its relationship to entrepreneurial action. En R. D. Reynolds, W. D. Bygrave, S. Manigart, C. M. Mason, G. D. Meyer, H. J. Sapienza y K. G. Shaver (Eds.), Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research (pp. 73-78). Waltham, MA: P & R Publication Inc.

Díaz-Casero, J. C., Ferreira, J. J. M. y Mogollón, R. H. (2012). Influence of institutional environment on entrepreneurial intention: A comparative study of two countries university students. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 8(1), 55-74.

Diegelman, N. M. y Subich, L. M. (2001). Academic and vocational interests as a function of outcome expectancies in Social Cognitive Career Theory. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 59, 394-405.

Douglas, E. J. y Sheperd, D. A. (2002). Self-employment as a career choice: Attitudes, entrepreneurial intentions, and utility maximization. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 26(3), 81-90.

Edelman, L. F., Brush, C. B., Manolova, T. S. y Greene, P. G. (2010). Start-up motivations and growth intentions of minority nascent entrepreneurs. Journal of Small Business Management, 48, 174-196.

Eurostat. (2011). Labour Market Statistics. Luxemburgo: Oficina de Publicaciones de la Unión Europea.

Falk, R. F. y Miller, N. B. (1992). A Primer for Soft Modeling. Akron, Ohio: The University of Akron.

Fayolle, A. (2005). Evaluation of entrepreneurship education: Behavior performing or intention increasing? International Journal Entrepreneurship and Small Business, 2, 89-98.

Ferry, R. R., Fouad, N. A. y Smith, P. L. (2000). The role of family context in a social cognitive model for career-related choice behavior: A Math and Science perspective. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 57, 348-364.

Fiet, J. O. y Pankaj, P. (2008). Prescriptive Entrepreneurship. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar.

Fiske, D. W. (1982). Convergent-discriminant validation in measurements and research strategies. En D. Brinbirg y L. H. Kidder (Eds.), Forms of Validity in Research (pp. 77-92). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Fitzsimmons, J. R. y Douglas, E. J. (2011). Interaction between feasibility and desirability in the formation of entrepreneurial intentions. Journal of Business Venturing, 26(4), 431-440.

Flores, L. Y., Robitschek, C., Celebi, E., Andersen, C. y Hoang, U. (2010). Social cognitive influences on Mexican Americans’ career choices across Holland’s themes. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 76, 198-210.

Fornell, C. y Bookstein, F. L. (1982). A comparative analysis of two structural equation models: Lisrel and PLS applied to market data. En C. Fornell (Ed.), A Second Generation of Multivariate Analysis (Vol. 1, pp. 289-324). Nueva York: Praeger Publishers.

Fornell, C. y Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18, 39-50.

Gainor, K. A. y Lent, R. W. (1998). Social cognitive expectations and racial identity attitudes in predicting the Math choice intentions of black college students. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 45, 403-413.

Galloway, L., Anderson, M., Brown, W. y Wilson, L. (2005). Enterprise skills for the economy. Education + Training, 47, 7-17.

García-Montalvo, J. y Peiró, J. M. (2009). Análisis de la Sobrecualificación y la Flexibilidad Laboral. Observatorio de Inserción Laboral de los Jóvenes 2008. Valencia: Fundación Bancaja-IVIE.

García-Montalvo, J. y Peiró, J. M. (2011). Crisis Económica e Inserción Laboral de los Jóvenes. Resultados del Observatorio de Inserción Laboral de los Jóvenes 2011. Valencia: Fundación Bancaja-IVIE.

Geisser, S. (1974). A predictive approach to the random effects model. Biometrica, 61, 101-107.

Gibb, A. A. (1983). The small business challenge to management education: Introduction. Distinguishing characteristics of small firms. Journal of European Industrial Training, 7(5), 3-41.

Guerrero, M., Rialp, J. y Urbano, D. (2008). The impact of desirability and feasibility on entrepreneurial intentions: A structural equation model. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 4, 35-50.

Hair, J. F. J., Anderson, R. E., Tatham, R. L. y Black, W. C. (1998). Multivariate Data Analysis (5ª ed.). Londres: Prentice Hall International.

Hansen, J. C. (1984). The measurement of vocational interests: Issues and future directions. En S. D. Brown y R. W. Lent (Eds.), Handbook of Counseling Psychology (pp. 99-136). Nueva York: Wiley.

Hemmasi, M. y Hoelscher, M. (2005). Entrepreneurship research: Using students as proxies for actual entrepreneurs. Journal of Entrepreneurship Education, 8, 49-59.

Hinkin, T. R. (1995). A review of scale development practices in the study of organizations. Journal of Management, 21, 967-988.

Holland, J. L. (1959). A theory of vocational choice. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 6, 35-45.

Holland, J. L. (1985). Making vocational choices: A theory of Vocational Personalities and Work Environments (2ª ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Holland, J. L. (1997). Making Vocational Choices (3a ed.). Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.

Hynes, B. (1996). Entrepreneurship education and training - introducing entrepreneurship into non-business disciplines. Journal of European Industrial Training, 20(8), 10-17.

Johnson, D., Craig, J. B. L. y Hildebrand, R. (2006). Entrepreneurship education: Towards a discipline-based framework. Journal of Management Development, 25(1), 40-54.

Katz, J. A. (1992). A psychosocial cognitive model of employment status choice. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 17(1), 29-37.

Katz, J. y Gartner, W. (1988). Properties of emerging organizations. Academy of Management Review, 13, 429-441.

Kelley, D. J., Singer, S. y Herrington, M. (2011). Global Entrepreneurship Monitor. 2011 Executive Report. Babson Park, MA-Londres: Babson College-London Business School.

Kickul, J., Gundry, L. K., Barbosa, S. D. y Whitcanack, L. (2009). Intuition versus analysis? Testing differential models of cognitive style on entrepreneurial self-efficacy and the new venture creation process. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice 33, 439-453.

Kim, M. y Hunter, J. (1993). Relationships among attitudes, intentions and behavior. Communication Research, 20, 331-364.

Koellinger, P., Minniti, M. y Schade, C. (2007). “I think I can, I think I can”: Overconfidence and entrepreneurial behavior. Journal of Economic Psychology, 28, 502-528.

Kolvereid, L. (1996a). Prediction of employment status choice intentions. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 20(3), 47-57.

Kolvereid, L. (1996b). Organizational employment versus self-employment: Reasons for career choice intentions. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 20(3), 23-32.

Krueger, N. F. (1993). The impact of prior entrepreneurial exposure on perceptions of new venture feasibility and desirability. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 18(1), 5-21.

Krueger, N. F. (2000). The cognitive infrastructure of opportunity emergence. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 24(3), 5-23.

Krueger, N. F. y Brazeal, D. V. (1994). Entrepreneurial potential and potential entrepreneurs. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 18(3), 91-104.

Krueger, N. F. y Carsrud, A. L. (1993). Entrepreneurial intentions: Applying the theory of planned behavior. Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, 5, 315-30.

Krueger, N. F., Reilly, M. D. y Carsrud, A. L. (2000). Competing models of entrepreneurial intentions. Journal of Business Venturing, 15, 411-432.

Lanero, A., Vázquez, J. L., Gutiérrez, P. y García, M. P. (2011). The impact of entrepreneurship education in European universities: An intention-based approach analyzed in the Spanish area. International Review on Public and Non-profit Marketing, 8(2), 111-130.

Lee, S. H. y Wong, P. K. (2004). An exploratory study of technopreneurial intentions: A career anchor perspective. Journal of Business Venturing, 19, 7-28.

Lent, R. W. (2005). A social cognitive view of career development and counseling. En S. D. Brown y R. L Lent (Eds.), Career Development and Counselling: Putting Theory and Research to Work (pp. 101-127). Nueva York: Wiley.

Lent, R. W. y Brown, S. D. (2006). Integrating person and situation perspectives on work satisfaction: A social-cognitive view. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 69, 236-247.

Lent, R. W., Brown, S. D., Brenner, B., Chopra, S. B., Davis, T., Talleyrand, R. y Suthakaran, V. (2001). The role of contextual supports and barriers in the choice of Math/Science educational options: A test of social cognitive hypotheses. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 48, 474-483.

Lent, R. W., Brown, S. D. y Hackett, G. (1994). Toward a unifying social cognitive theory of career and academic interest, choice, and performance. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 45, 79-122.

Lent, R. W., Brown, S. D. y Hackett, G. (2000). Contextual supports and barriers to career choice: A social cognitive analysis. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 47, 36-49.

Lent, R. W., Brown, S. D. y Hackett, G. (2002). Social Cognitive Career Theory. En D. Brown et al. (Eds.), Career Choice and Development (4ª ed., pp. 255-311). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Lent, R. W., Brown, S. D., Schmidt, J. S., Brenner, B., Lynos, H. y Treistman, D. (2003). Relation of contextual supports and barriers to choice behaviour in engineering majors. Test of alternative social cognitive models. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 50, 458-465.

Lent, R. W., Brown, S. D., Sheu, H. B., Schmidt, J., Brenner, B. R., Gloster, C. S., Wilkins, G., Schmidt, L. C., Lynos, H. y Treistman, D. (2005). Social cognitive predictors of academic interests and goals in engineering: Utility for women and students at historically black universities. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 52, 84-92.

Lent, R. W., López, A. M., López, F. G. y Sheu, H. B. (2008). Social Cognitive Career Theory and the prediction of interests and choice goals in the computing disciplines. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 73, 52-62.

Lent, R. W., Lopez, F. G., Sheu, H.-B. y Lopez, Jr., A. M. (2011). Social cognitive predictors of the interests and choices of computing majors: Applicability to underrepresented students. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 78(2), 184-192.

Lent, R. W., Sheu, H. B., Gloster, C. S. y Wilkins, G. (2010). Longitudinal test of the social cognitive model of choice in engineering students at historically Black universities. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 76, 355-365.

Lent, R. W., Sheu, H. B., Singley, D., Schmidt, J. A., Schmidt, L. C. y Gloster, C. S. (2008). Longitudinal relations of self-efficacy to outcome expectations, interests, and major choice goals in engineering students. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 73, 328-335.

Levenburg, N. M., Lane, P. M., Schwarz, T. V. y Rapids, G. (2006). Interdisciplinary dimensions in entrepreneurship. Journal of Education for Business, 81, 275-282.

Liñán, F. y Chen, Y. (2009). Development and cross-cultural application of a specific instrument to measure entrepreneurial intentions. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 33, 593-617.

Liñán, F., Urbano, D. y Guerrero, M. (2011). Regional variations in entrepreneurial cognitions: Start-up intentions of university students in Spain. Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, 23(3-4), 187-215.

MacMillan, I. y Katz, J. (1992). Idiosyncratic milieus of entrepreneurship research: The need for comprehensive theories. Journal of Business Venturing, 7, 1-8.

Markman, G. D., Balkin, D. y Baron, R. (2002). Inventors and new venture formation: The effects of general self-efficacy and regretful thinking. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 27, 149-165.

Markman, G. D., Baron, R. A. y Balkin, D. B. (2005). Are perseverance and self-efficacy costless? Assessing entrepreneurs’ regretful thinking. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 26, 1-19.

Martínez, R. (1995). Psicometría: Teoría de los Test Psicológicos y Educativos. Madrid: Síntesis.

McGee, J. E., Mueller, S. L. y Sequeira, J. M. (2009). Self-efficacy: Refining the measure. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 33, 965-988.

McLarty, R. (2005). Entrepreneurship among graduates: Towards a measured response. Journal of Management, 24, 223-238.

McMullan W. E. y Long, W. A. (1987). Education in the nineties. Journal of Business Venturing. 2, 261-275.

Mitchell, T. R. y Knudsen, B. W. (1973). Instrumentality theory predictions of students’ attitudes towards business and their choice of business as an occupation. The Academy of Management Journal, 16, 41-52.

Moriano, J. A, Gorgievski, M., Laguna, M., Stephan, U. y Zarafshani, K. (2012). Cross-cultural approach to understanding entrepreneurial intention. Journal of Career Development, 39(2), 162-185.

Moriano, J. A., Palací, F. J. y Morales, J. F. (2006). Adaptation and validation of the entrepreneurial self-efficacy scale in Spain. Revista de Psicología Social, 21, 51-64.

Moriano, J. A., Topa, G., Molero, F., Entenza, A. M. y Lévy-Mangin, J.-P. (2012). Autoeficacia para el liderazgo emprendedor. Adaptación y validación de la escala CESE en España. Anales de Psicología, 28(1), 171-179.

Muñoz Adánez, A. (1997). El perfil del emprendedor y el perfil del universitario español en relación con el mismo. En A. Muñoz Adánez y F. Cachón (Eds.), Proyecto Emprendizaje: Cuatro estudios sobre la Universidad española. Madrid: Euroforum-Fundación General de la UCM.

Muñoz Adánez, A. (1999). ¿Es emprendedor el universitario español? En A. Muñoz Adánez y M. Bautista (Eds.), El Espíritu Emprendedor y la Creación de Empresas (pp. 1-14). Madrid: Editorial Complutense.

Nunnally, J. C. (1978). Psychometric Theory. Nueva York: McGraw-Hill.

Nunnally, J. C. y Bernstein, I. H. (1994). Psychometric theory (3ª ed.). Nueva York: McGraw-Hill.

Organización para la Cooperación y el Desarrollo Económicos. (2011). Education at a Glance. OECD indicators. París: OCDE.

Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Lee, J. y Podsakoff, N. P. (2003). Common method biases in behavioral research: A critical review of the literature and recommended remedies. The Journal of Applied Psychology, 88, 879-903.

Reynolds, P. D. y Miller, P. B. (1992). New firm gestation: Conception, birth, and implications for research. Journal of Business Venturing, 7, 405-417.

Ringle, C. M., Wende, S. y Will, A. (2005). SmartPLS 2.0 (beta). Hamburg: University of Hamburg.

Robinson, P. B., Huefner, J. C. y Hunt, H. K. (1991). Entrepreneurial research on student subjects does not generalize to real world entrepreneurs. Journal of Small Business Management, 29(2), 42-50.

Rotefos, B. y Kolvereid, L. (2005). Aspiring, nascent and fledgling entrepreneurs: An investigation of the business start-up process. Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, 17, 109-127.

Schaub, M. y Tokar, D. M. (2005). The role of personality and learning experiences in Social Cognitive Career Theory. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 66, 304-325.

Schmitt-Rodermund, E. (2004). Pathways to successful entrepreneurship: Parenting, personality, early entrepreneurial competence, and interests. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 65, 498-518.

Schmitt-Rodermund, E. y Vondracek, F. W. (2002). Occupational dreams, choices and aspirations: Adolescents’ entrepreneurial prospects and orientations. Journal of Adolescence, 25, 65-78.

Schröder, E. y Schmitt-Rodermund, E. (2006). Crystallizing enterprising interests among adolescents through a career development program: The role of personality and family background. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 69, 494-509.

Schwab, D. P. (1980). Construct validity in organization capital perspective. En B. M. Staw y L. L. Cummings (Eds.), Research In Organizational Behavior (Vol. 2, pp. 3-43). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.

Segal, G., Borgia, D. y Schoenfeld, J. (2002). Using Social Cognitive Career Theory to predict self-employment goals. New England Journal of Entrepreneurship, 5(2), 47-56.

Segal, G., Borgia, D. y Schoenfeld, J. (2005). The motivation to become an entrepreneur. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior and Research, 11, 42-57.

Sequeira, J., Mueller, S. L. y McGee, J. E. (2007). The influence of social ties and self-efficacy in forming entrepreneurial intentions and motivating nascent behavior. Journal of Development Entrepreneurship, 12, 275-293.

Sexton, D. L. y Bowman, N. B. (1984). Entrepreneurship education suggestions for increasing effectiveness. Journal of Small Business Management, 22(2), 18-25.

Shane, S. y Venkataraman, S. (2000). The promise of entrepreneurship as a field of research. Academy of Management Review, 25, 217-226.

Shapero, A. y Sokol, L. (1982). The social dimensions of entrepreneurship. En C. Kent, D. Sexton y K. Vesper (Eds), The Encyclopedia of Entrepreneurship (pp. 72-90). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Shaver, K. y Scott, L. (1991). Person, process, and choice: The psychology of new venture creation. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 16(2), 23-45.

Sheu, H. B., Lent, R. W., Brown, S. D., Miller, M. J., Hennessy, K. D. y Duffy, R. D. (2010). Testing the choice model of Social Cognitive Career Theory across Holland themes: A meta-analytic path analysis. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 76, 252-264.

Soutaris, V., Zerbinati, S. y Al-laham, A. (2007). Do entrepreneurship programmes raise entrepreneurial intention of science and engineering students? The effect of learning, inspiration and resources. Journal of Business Venturing, 22, 566-591.

Stone, M. (1974). Cross-validatory choice and assessment of statistical predictions. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, 36, 111-133.

Swanson, J. L. y Gore, P. A. (2000). Advances in vocational psychology theory and research. En S. D. Brown y R. W. Lent (Eds.), Handbook of counseling psychology (3ª ed., pp. 233-269). Nueva York: Willey.

Tang, M., Fouad N. A. y Smith, P. L. (1999). Asian Americans’ career choices: A path model to examine factors influencing their career choices. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 54, 142-199.

Tkachev, A. y Kolvereid, L. (1999). Self-employment intentions among Russian students. Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, 11, 269-280.

Toledano, N. y Urbano, D. (2008). Promoting entrepreneurial mindsets at universities: A case study in the South of Spain. European Journal of International Management, 2, 382-399.

Townsend, D. M., Busenitz, L. W. y Arthurs, J. D. (2010). To start or no to start: Outcome and ability expectations in the decision to start a new venture. Journal of Business Venturing, 25, 192-202.

Veciana, J. M., Aponte, M. y Urbano, U. (2005). University students’ attitudes towards entrepreneurship: A two countries comparison. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 1, 165-182.

Wilson, F., Kickul, J. y Marlino, D. (2007). Gender, entrepreneurial self-efficacy, and entrepreneurial career intentions: Implications for entrepreneurship education. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 31, 387-406.

Wold, H. (1980). Soft modeling: Intermediate between traditional model building and data analysis. Mathematical Statistics, 6, 333-346.

Wold, H. (1982). Systems under indirect observation using PLS. En C. Fornell (Ed.), A Second Generation of Multivariate Analysis (pp. 325-347). Nueva York: Praeger Publishers.

Wold, H. (1985). Systems analysis by Partial Least Squares. En P. Nijkamp, H. Leitner y N. Wrigley (Ed.), Measuring the Unmeasurable (pp. 221-251). Dordrecht: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.

Wu, S. y Wu, L. (2008). The impact of higher education on entrepreneurial intentions of university students in China. Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, 15, 752-774.

Zhao, H., Seibert, C. y Hills, C. (2005). The mediating role of self-efficacy in the development of entrepreneurial intentions. Journal of Applied Psychology, 90, 1265-1272.

Zellweger, T., Sieger, P. y Halter, F. (2011). Should I stay or should I go? Career choice intentions of students with family business background. Journal of Business Venturing, 26(5), 521-536.

How to Cite
Lanero, A., Vázquez, J.-L., & Muñoz-Adánez, A. (2014). A social cognitive model of entrepreneurial intentions in university students. Anales De Psicología / Annals of Psychology, 31(1), 243-259. https://doi.org/10.6018/analesps.31.1.161461
Psychology and learning in college students