Epidemiological analysis of gender violence in the European Union

Keywords: Violencia de género, Unión Europea, Epidemiología, Feminicidio

Abstract

There is a great regional heterogeneity and ignorance of the current gender-based violence (GBV) situation in the different countries of the European Union (EU-28). The aim of this paper is to determine the current prevalence of GBV and femicides in the EU-28 and in Spain in particular. This study consists of an observational descriptive study (document analysis) which selects and analyses data belonging to the different modalities of GBV and femicides in the EU-28 countries. Latvia, Denmark, United Kingdom, Sweden, Belgium, Finland, Slovakia and Luxembourg possess higher rates than the EU average in all types of GBV while Finland, Hungary, Northern Ireland and Latvia possess higher prevalence rates in femicide. With respect to Spain, 0.13% of women were victims of GBV and 2.3 femicides occur for every 1.000.000 women, with Spain being among the countries with the lowest rates. It is therefore concluded that psychological abuse is the most prevalent within the EU-28, however, it is difficult to compare said data from different countries due to the lack of a common legal conceptuaisation of GBV.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Cantos, A. L., Kosson, D., Goldstein, D. & O’Leary, K. D. (2019). Treatment impact on recidivism of family only vs. generally violent partner violence perpetrators. International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology, 19(3), 171-180. Retrieved from http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijchp.2019.05.002

Centre for Sociological Research. (2019). Estudio nº 3267. Barómetro de noviembre 2019. [Study nº 3267. Barometer of November 2019]. Retrieved from http://www.cis.es/cis/opencms/ES/index.html

Council of Europe Convention on preventing and combating violence against women and domestic violence. Concil of Europe Treaty Series, nº 210, 2011, 11 mayo.

European Institute for Gender Equality. (2016). Legal definitions in the EU Member States. Retrieved from https://eige.europa.eu/gender-based-violence/regulatory-and-legal-framework/legal-definitions-in-the-eu

European Institute for Gender Equality. (2020). Gender Equality Index, comparing scores for 2019. Retrieved from https://eige.europa.eu/gender-equality-index/compare-countries

European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights. (2014). Violence against women: An EU-wide survey: Main results. Vienna, Austria: FRA—European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights. http://doi.org/10.2811/981927

Fernández-Suárez, A., Pérez, B., Herrero, J., Juarros-Basterretxea, J. & Rodríguez-Díaz, F. J. (2018). The role of psychopathic traits among intimate partner-violent men: A systematic review. Revista Iberoamericana de Psicología y Salud, 9(2), 84-114. https://doi.org/10.23923/j.rips.2018.02.017

González, J. L., Garrido, M. J., López, J. J., Muñoz, J. M., Arribas, A., Carbajosa, P. & Ballano, E. (2018). Revisión Pormenorizada de Homicidios de Mujeres en las Relaciones de Pareja en España. [In-depth review of intimate partner homicide against women in Spain]. Anuario de Psicología Jurídica, 28, 28-38. https://doi.org/10.5093/apj2018a2 apj2018a2

González-Álvarez, J. L., López-Ossorio, J. J., Pozuelo, F., Sánchez, J., Santos-Hermoso, J. & Soler, C. (2019). Avance de resultados del estudio nacional de revisión de feminicidios en España: Perfil del feminicida en prisión. [Preview of the results of the national study of the review of femicides in Spain: Profile of the femicide in prison]. In J. M. Bermudo (Eds.), X Jornadas de ATIP Almagro 2018 (pp. 43-83). Cáceres, Spain.

Government Delegation against Gender Violence. (2014). Percepción social de la Violencia de Género. [Social perception of gender violence]. Retrieved from http://www.violenciagenero.igualdad.gob.es/violenciaEnCifras/estudios/colecciones/pdf/Percepcion_Social_VG_web.pdf

Government Delegation against Gender Violence. (2015). Macroencuesta de violencia contra la mujer 2015. [Macro-survey on violence against women 2015]. Retrieved from http://www.violenciagenero.igualdad.gob.es/violenciaEnCifras/estudios/colecciones/pdf/Libro_22_Macroencuesta2015.pdf

Government Delegation against Gender Violence. (2019). Boletín estadístico mensual – Diciembre 2019. [Monthly statistical bulletin - December 2019]. Retrieved from https://violenciagenero.org/sites/default/files/boletin_estadistico_mensual_diciembre_19.pdf

Government Delegation against Gender Violence. (18 de febrero, 2020). Portal Estadístico. [Statistical portal]. Retrieved from http://estadisticasviolenciagenero.igualdad.mpr.gob.es/

Gracia, E., Martín-Fernández, M., Lila, M., Merlo, J. & Ivert, A. K. (2019). Prevalence of intimate partner violence against women in Sweden and Spain: A psychometric study of the “Nordic paradox”. Plos One, 14(5), 1-17. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0217015

Gracia, E. & Merlo J. (2016). Intimate partner violence against women and the Nordic paradox. Social Science & Medicine, 157, 27-30. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2016.03.040

Gracia-Leiva, M., Puente-Martínez, A., Ubillos-Landa, S. & Páez-Rovira, D. (2019). Dating Violence (DV): A systematic meta-analysis review. Anales de psicología, 35(2), 300-313. https://doi.org/10.6018/analesps.35.2.333101

Juarros-Basterretxea, J., Herrero J., Fernández-Suárez, A., Pérez, B. & Rodríguez-Díaz, F. J. (2018). Are generalist batterers different from generally extra-family violent men? A study among imprisoned male violent offenders. European Journal of Psychology Applied to Legal Context, 10(1), 8-14. https://doi.org/10.5093/ejpalc2018a1

Juarros-Basterretxea, J., Overall, N., Herrero, J. & Rodríguez-Díaz, F. J. (2019). Considering the effect of sexism on psychological intimate partner violence: A study with imprisoned men. European Journal of Psychology Applied to Legal Context, 11(2), 61-69. https://doi.org/10.5093/ejpalc2019a1

Loinaz, I., Marzabal, I. & Andrés-Pueyo, A. (2018). Risk factors of female intimate partner and non-intimate partner homicides. European Journal of Psychology Applied to Legal Context, 10(2), 49-55. https://doi.org/10.5093/ejpalc2018a4

López-Ossorio, J. J., González, J. L., Buquerín, S., García, L. F. & Buela-Casal, G. (2017). Risk factors related to intimate partner violence police recidivism in Spain. International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology, 17, 107-119. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijchp.2016.12.001

Martín, B. & Moral, M. V. (2019). Relación entre dependencia emocional y maltrato psicológico en forma de victimización y agresión en jóvenes. [Relationship between emotional dependence and psychological abuse in the form of victimization and aggression in young people]. Revista Iberoamericana de Psicología y Salud, 10(2), 75-89. https://doi.org/10.23923/j.rips.2019.02.027

Martín-Fernández, M., Gracia, E., Marco, M., Vargas V., Santirso, F. A. & Lila, M. (2018). Measuring acceptability of intimate partner violence against women: Development and validation of the A-IPVAW scale. European Journal of Psychology Applied to Legal Context, 10(1), 16-34. https://doi.org/10.5093/ejpalc2018a3

Menéndez, S., Pérez, J. & Lorence, B. (2013). La violencia de pareja contra la mujer en España: Cuantificación y caracterización del problema, las víctimas, los agresores y el contexto social y profesional. [Partner violence against women in Spain: Quantification and characterization of the problem, victims, aggressors, and the social and professional context]. Psychosocial Intervention, 22, 41-53. https://doi.org/10.5093/in2013a6

Montero, I., & León, O. (2007). A guide for naming research studies in Psychology. International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology, 7(3), 847-862. Retrieved from https://www.redalyc.org/pdf/337/33770318.pdf

National Statistics Institute. (2020). Cifras de población. [Population figures]. Retrieved from https://www.ine.es/dyngs/INEbase/es/operacion.htm?c=Estadistica_C&cid=1254736176951&menu=ultiDatos&idp=1254735572981

National Statistics Institute. (2019). Estadística de violencia doméstica y violencia de género [Statistics on domestic violence and gender-based violence]. Retrieved from http://www.ine.es/dyngs/INEbase/es/operacion.htm?c=Estadistica_C&cid=1254736176866&menu=resultados&idp=1254735573206

Noruega, N., Juarros-Basterretxea, J. & Herrero, J. (2020). Implicación de los profesionales de la salud en los casos de violencia en la pareja contra la mujer: La influencia de las actitudes sexistas hacia la mujer [Health professionals´ involvement in cases of partner violence against women: The influence of sexist attitudes toward women]. Revista Iberoamericana de Psicología y Salud, 11(1), 31-41. https://doi.org/10.23923/j.rips.2020.01.033

United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. (2014). Global study on homicide 2013 (No. 14.IV.1). Retrieved from https://www.unodc.org/documents/data-and-analysis/statistics/GSH2013/2014_GLOBAL_HOMICIDE_BOOK_web.pdf

United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. (2018). Global Study on Homicide 2018: Gender-related killing of women and girls. Vienna, Austria: United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. Retrieved from https://www.unodc.org/documents/data-and-analysis/GSH2018/GSH18_Gender-related_killing_of_women_and_girls.pdf

Eurostat – European Statistics. (29 June, 2019). Intentional homicide victims by victim-offender relationship and sex - number and rate for the relevant sex group. Retrieved from https://appsso.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/nui/show.do?dataset=crim_hom_vrel&lang=en

World Health Organization. (2013). Global and regional estimates of violence agains women: Prevalence and health effects of intimate partner violence and non-partner sexual violence. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO Press.

United Nations. (2015). The world’s women 2015: Trends and statistics. New York, United States. https://doi.org/10.18356/9789210573719

European Parliament. (2017). La igualdad entre hombres y mujeres. [Equality between men and women]. Retrieved from https://www.europarl.europa.eu/portal/es

Pierotti, R. S. (2013). Increasing rejection of intimate partner violence: Evidence of global cultural diffusion. American Sociological Review, 78(2), 240-265. https://doi.org/10.1177/0003122413480363

Sjödin, A. K., Wallinius, M., Billstedt, E., Hofvander, B. & Nilsson, T. (2017). Dating violence compared to other types of violence: Similar offenders but different victims. European Journal of Psychology Applied to Legal Context, 9, 83-91. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejpal.2017.03.001

Valle, L. & Moral, M. V. (2018). Dependencia emocional y estilo de apego adulto en las relaciones de noviazgo en jóvenes españoles. [Emotional dependence and adult attachment style in dating relationships in spanish young people]. Revista Iberoamericana de Psicología y Salud, 9(1), 27-41. https://doi.org/10.23923/j. rips.2018.01.013

Vives-Cases, C., Goicolea, I., Hernández, A., Sanz-Barbero, B., Gill, A. K., Baldry, A.C., … & Stöckl, H. (2016). Expert opinions on improving feminicide data collection across Europe: A concept mapping study. Plos one, 11(2), 1-14. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0154060

Weber, E. N., Taylor, A. R., Cantos, A. L., Amado, B. G. & O’Leary, K. D. (2019). Exploring typology categorizations of male perpetrators: A methodology study. European Journal of Psychology Applied to Legal Context, 11(2), 93-97. https://doi.org/10.5093/ejpalc2019a5

Wemrell, M., Stjernlöf, S., Aenishänslin, J., Lila, M., Gracia, E. & Ivert, A. K. (2019). Towards understanding the Nordic paradox: A review of qualitive interview studies on intimate partner violence against women (IPVAW) in Sweden. Sociology Compass, 13, 1-23. https://doi.org/10.1111/soc4.12699

Yanez-Puñúñuri, L. Y., Martínez-Gómez, J. A. & Rey-Anacona, C. A. (2019). Therapeutic intervention for victims and perpetrators of dating violence: A systematic review. Revista Iberoamericana de Psicología y Salud, 10(2), 107-121. https://doi.org/10.23923/j.rips.2019.02.029
Published
04-08-2020
How to Cite
Meléndez-Domínguez, M., & Bermúdez, M. P. (2020). Epidemiological analysis of gender violence in the European Union. Anales De Psicología / Annals of Psychology, 36(3), 380-385. https://doi.org/10.6018/analesps.428611
Section
Legal Psychology