Burnout and wellbeing of teacher candidates: The mediator role of cynicism

  • Fuad Bakioğlu Karamanoğlu Mehmetbey University, Faculty of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, Karaman (Turkey) https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9905-6199
  • Zafer Kiraz Gaziosmanpaşa University, Faculty of Education, Institute of Education Sciences
Keywords: burnout, wellbeing, cynicism, teacher candidates, Turkey

Abstract

The aim of this study was to investigate a mediator role of cynicism in the relationship between burnout and wellbeing. Participants were 326 teacher candidates [189 (58%) female, 137 (42%) male, Mage = 23.14 years, SD = 2.36]  who completed questionnaires package the Burnout Measure Short Version, the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, Life with Satisfaction Scale and the Hunter Cynicism Scale. The data were analyzed using structural equation modeling. A bootstrapping analysis was conducted in order to determine any indirect effects. The results showed that burnout predicted cynicism positively and wellbeing negatively, and that cynicism predicted wellbeing negatively. It was further found that the structural equation model that proposed that burnout had a direct and an indirect effect through cynicism on wellbeing was confirmed. The results of the study were discussed in the light of relevant literature, and suggestions for future studies were made.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Abraham, R. (2000). Organizational cynicism: Bases and consequences. Genetic, Social, and General Psychology Monographs, (126), 269-292.

Alan, H., & Fidanboy, C. Ö. (2013). The relationship among cynicism, burnout and personality: an investigation on information sector employees. Journal of Süleyman Demirel University Institute of Social Sciences,1, Special Volume on Of-fice Management, 165-176.

Anderson, L.M. (1996). Employee Cynicism: An Examination Using a Contract Violation Framework. Human Relations, 49, 1395-1418.

Arı, G. S., & Bal, E. Ç. (2008). “The Concept of Burnout: Its Importance For Individuals and Organizations”. Management and Economics, 15(1), 131-148.

Aypay, A., & Eryılmaz, A. (2011). Relationships of high school sdutent’subjective well-being and school burnout. International Online Journal of Educational Sciences, 3(1), 181-199.

Bakker, A. B., Demerouti, E., & Verbeke, W. (2004). Using the job demands–resources model to predict burnout and performance. Human Resource Man-agement, 43,83–104. doi:10.1002/hrm.20004

Balkıs, M., Duru, E., Buluş, M. & Duru, S. (2011). The Prevalence of Burnout among Prospective Teachers, It’s Relation with Demographic Variables and Academic Achievement. Journal of Pamukkale University Education Faculty, 29, 151-165.

Bang, H., & Reio Jr, T. G. (2017). Examining the role of cynicism in the rela-tionships between burnout and employee behavior. Revista de Psicología del Trabajo y de las Organizaciones, 33(3), 217-227.

Billings, M. E., Lazarus, M. E., Wenrich, M., Curtis, J. R., & Engelberg, R. A. (2011). The effect of the hidden curriculum on resident burnout and cyni-cism. Journal of graduate medical education, 3(4), 503-510.

Brandes, P. M. (1997). Organizational Cynicism: Its Nature, Antecedents, and Conse-quences. Unpublished Doctora Dissertation. The University of Cincinnati.

Brandes, P., & Das, D. (2006). Locating behavioral cynicism at work: Construct issues and performance implications. In Employee health, coping and methodolo-gies (pp. 233-266). Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

Burke, R. J., Koyuncu, M., & Fiksenbaum, L. (2010). Burnout, work satisfactions and psychological well-being among nurses in Turkish hospitals. Europe’s journal of Psychology, 6(1), 63-81.

Cartwright, S., & Holmes, N. (2006). The meaning of work: The challenge of regain-ing employee engagement and reducing cynicism. Human Resource Management Review, 16, 199–208. doi:10.1016/j.hrmr.2006.03.012

Cushman, S., & West, R. (2006). Precursors to college student burnout: Devel-oping a typology of understanding. Qualitative Research Reports in Communica-tion, 7, 23-31

Dağlı, A, & Baysal, N. (2016). Adaptation of the satisfaction with life scale into Turkish: the study of validity and reliability. Electronic Journal of Social Sciences, 15 (59), 1250-1262.

Demerouti, E., Verbeke, W. J. M. I., & Bakker, A. B. (2005). Exploring there-lationship between a multidimensional and multifaceted burnout con-cept and self-rated performance. Journal of Management, 31, 186–209. doi:10.1177/0149206304271602

Diener, E. (1984). Subjective well-being. Psychological Bulletin, 95(3), 542-575.

Diener, E. (2000). Subjective well-being: The science of happiness and a pro-posal for a national index. American Psychologist, 55(1), 34-43.

Diener, E., & Ryan, K. (2009). Subjective well-being: A general overview. South African Journal of Psychology, 39(4), 391-406.

Diener, E., Emmons, R. A., Larsen, R. J., & Griffin, S. (1985). The satisfaction with life scale. Journal of Personality Assessment, 49(1), 71-75.

Duran, S., & Barlas, G. (2014). Determination of subjective wellbeing, self-compassion and burnout levels of the parents with mentally disabled chil-dren. Mersin University Journal of Health Sciences, 7(3), 69-79.

Erdost, H. E., Karacaoğlu, K., & Reyhanoğlu, M. (2007). The concept of organi-zational cynicism and testing related to the scale of a company in Turkey, 15th National Congress of Management and Organization (Congress Book). Sakarya. 25-27 May, 514-523.

Ergin, C. (1992). “Doctor and nurse burnout and the Maslach Burnout Invento-ry adaptation”, VII. National Psychology Congress Scientific Studies, Anka-ra: Turkish Psychologists Association Publications, 143-154.

Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Structural equation models with unobserva-ble variables and measurement error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18, 39–50.

Freudenberger, H. J. (1974). “ Staff Burn-Out”, Journal of Social Issues, 30(1), 159-165.

Gençöz, T. (2000). Positive and Negative Affect Schedule: A study of validity and reliability. Turkish Journal of PSychology, 15(46), 27-28.

Gün, F. (2015). An Investigation of the Relationship between Organizational Cynicism and Burnout Regarding the Perceptions of Academicians. Unpublished Master Thesis. Ankara, Hacettepe University.

Hall, L. H., Johnson, J., Watt, I., Tsipa, A., & O’Connor, D. B. (2016). Healthcare staff wellbeing, burnout, and patient safety: a systematic re-view. PloS one, 11(7).

Hall, L. H., Johnson, J., Heyhoe, J., Watt, I., Anderson, K., & O'connor, D. B. (2017). Exploring the impact of primary care physician burnout and wellbe-ing on patient care: A focus group study. Journal of patient safety.

Hançerlioğlu, O. (2000). The Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 3th ed. Remzi Bookstore, İstanbul.

Henson, R.K., & Roberts, J.K., (2006). Use of exploratory factor analysis in pub-lished research. Educational and Psychological measurement, 66(3), 393–416.

Hu, L.T., & Bentler, P.M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 6(1), 1-55. doi:10.1080/10705519909540118

Huck, S.W., 2012. Reading Statistics and Research, 6th ed. Pearson, Boston.

İncesu, E., Yorulmaz, M., & Evirgen, H. (2017). The effect of organizational cynicism on burnout: a study on hospital employees. International Journal of Health Management and Strategies Research, 3(3), 370-380.

James M. S. L. (2005). Antecedents and Consequences of Cynicism in Organizations: An Examination of the Potential Positive and Negative Effects on School Systems. Un-published Doctoral Dissertation, The Florida State University, USA

Kaçmaz, N. (2005). “Burnout Syndrome”. Istanbul University Journal of Istanbul Faculty of Medicine, 68(1), 29-32.

Kalağan, G. (2009). The Relationship between Perceived Organizational Support and Or-ganizational Cynicism of Research Assistants. Unpublished Master Thesis, Akden-iz University, Antalya.

Kalağan, G., & Güzeller, C. O. (2010). The Organizational Cynicism Levels of the Teachers. Journal of Pamukkale University Education Faculty, 27, 83-97.

Kiraz, Z., & Bakioglu, F. (2016). Adaptation of Hunter Cynicism Scale to Turk-ish: Validity and Reliability Study. Universal Journal of Educational Re-search, 4(11), 2643-2650.

Lambie, Glenn W. (2007), “The Contribution of Ego Development Level to Burnout in School Counselors: Implications for Professional School Coun-seling”. Journal of Counseling & Develpoment , 85, 82-88.

Lee, H. B., Restori, A. F., & Katz, G. S. A (2010). Factor structure and psycho-metric evaluation of the hunter cynicism scale. Psychology Journal, 7, 121-127.

Little, T.D., Cunningham, W.A., Shahar, G., & Widaman, K.F. (2002). To parcel or not to parcel: Exploring the question, weighing the merits. Structural equa-tion modeling, 9(2), 151-173.

MacCallum, R.C., Browne, M.W., & Sugawara, H.M. (1996). Power analysis & determination of sample size for covariance structure modeling. Psychological Methods, 1(2), 130-149. doi:10.1037/1082989X.1.2.130

Maslach, C. (2003), “Job Burnout: New Directions in Research and Interven-tion”. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 12(5), 189-192.

Mirvis, P., & Kanter, D. L. (1989). Combating cynicism in the workplace. Na-tional Productivity Review, 8, 377–394. doi:10.1002/npr.4040080406

Mirvis, P., & Kanter, D. L. (1991). Beyond demography: A psychographic profile of the workforce. Human Resource Management, 30, 45–68. doi:10.1002/hrm.3930300104

Nasser-Abu Alhija, F., & Wisenbaker, J. (2006). A Monte Carlo study investigat-ing the impact of item parceling strategies on parameter estimates and their standard errors in CFA. Structural Equation Modeling, 13(2), 204-228. doi:10.1207/s15328007sem1302_3

Nunnally, J.C. (1978). Psychometric Theory, 2nd ed. McGraw-Hill, New York.

Özyürek, A., Gümüş, H., & Doğan, S. (2012). Examination of burnout and life satisfaction levels of teachers and school administrators. International Journal of Human Sciences [Online]. 9(2), 892-904.

Pines, A. M. (2005). The burnout measure short version (BMS). International Journal of Stress Management, 12(1), 78-88.

Portoghese, I., Leiter, M. P., Maslach, C., Galletta, M., Porru, F., D’Aloja, E., ... & Campagna, M. (2018). Measuring Burnout Among University Students: Factorial Validity, Invariance, and Latent Profiles of the Italian Version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory Student Survey (MBI-SS). Frontiers in Psy-chology, 9, 1-9.

Preacher, K. J., & Hayes, A. F. (2008). Contemporary approaches to assessing mediation in communication research. The Sage sourcebook of advanced data analysis methods for communication research, 13-54. doi:10.4135/9781452272054.n2

Salanova, M., Llorens, S., García-Renedo, M., Burriel, R., BresÓ, E., & Schaufeli, W. B. (2005). Towards a four-dimensional model of burnout: A multigroup factor-analytic study including depersonalization and cynicism. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 65(5), 807-819.

Santen, S. A. Holt, D. B., Kemp, J. D., & Hemphill, R. R. (2010). Burnout in Medical Students: Examining the Prevalence and Associated Factors. Sout-hern Medical Journal, 103(8), 758-763

Schaufeli, W. B., Taris, T. W., & Van Rhenen, W. (2008). Work holism, burnout, and work engagement: Three of a kind or three different kinds of employee well‐being?. Applied psychology, 57(2), 173-203.

Schorn, N. K. & Buchwald, P. (2007). Burnout in Student Teachers. In P. Roussi, E. Vasilaki, K. Kaniasty, & J. D. Barker (Eds.), Electronic Proceedings of the 27th Conference of the STAR Society, 13-15 July 2006, University of Crete, Rethymnon (pp. 150 - 159). http://www.petra-buchwald.de/Burnout-in-Student- Teachers.pdf.

Seligman, M., & Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2000). Positive psychology: An Introduc-tion. American Psychologist, 55(1), 5-14.

Şanlı-Kula, K., & Saraç, T. (2016). The Future Anxiety of the University Stu-dents. Mustafa Mustafa Kemal University Journal of Social Sciences Institute, 13 (33),227-242.

Tabachnick, B.G., & Fidell, L.S. (2007). Using multivariate statistics. Boston: Pear-son.

Taris, T. W., LeBlanc, P. M., Schaufeli, W. B., & Schreurs, P. J. G. (2005). Are-there causal relationships between the dimensions of the Maslach Burnout Inventory? A review and two longitudinal tests. Work & Stress, 19, 238-255. doi:10.1080/02678370500270453

Torun, A. (1997), “Stress and Burnout”, In Industrial and Organizational Psy-chology, 2nd ed. Suna Tevrüz, Joint Publication of the Association of Turk-ish Psychologists and Quality Association, İstanbul, 43-53.

Tümkaya, S., Aybek, B., & Çelik, M. (2007). An prediction of hopelessness and state-trait anxiety levels among teacher candidates before the KPSS exam. Educational Sciences: Theory & Practice, 7(2), 953-974.

Tümkaya, S., Çam. S., & Çavuşoğlu, İ. (2009). Turkish Adaptation of the Burn-out Measure Short Version. Journal of Çukurova University Institute of Social Sci-ences, 18(1), 387-398.

Tümkaya, S., & Çavuşoğlu, İ. (2010). An Analysis of the Burnout level of Pri-mary School Teaching Department Student Teachers. Journal of Çukurova University Institute of Social Sciences 19(2), 468-481.

Wanous, J. P, Reichers, A. E, & Austin, J.T. (2000). Cynicism About Organiza-tional Change: Measurement, Antecedent and correlates, Group and Organiza-tional Management, 25(2), 132-153.

Watson, D., Clark, L. A., & Tellegen, A. (1988). Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: the PANAS scales. Journal of personality and social psychology, 54(6), 1063.

Wei, X., Wang, R., & MacDonald, E. (2015). Exploring the relations between student cynicism and student burnout. Psychological reports, 117(1), 103-115.

Worthington, R. L., Whittaker, T. A. (2006). Scale development research: a con-tent analysis and recommendations for best practices. Counseling Psychology, 34, 806-838.

Yalçın, İ. (2015). Relationships Between Well-Being and Social Support: A Meta-Analysis of Studies Conducted in Turkey. Turkish Journal of Psychiatry, 26(1), 21-32.

Published
02-08-2019
How to Cite
Bakioğlu, F., & Kiraz, Z. (2019). Burnout and wellbeing of teacher candidates: The mediator role of cynicism. Anales De Psicología / Annals of Psychology, 35(3), 521-528. https://doi.org/10.6018/analesps.35.3.354441
Section
Social and Organizational Psychology