Programas educativos en pacientes con Enfermedad Pulmonar Obstructiva Crónica. Revisión integradora

  • Ana Folch Universitat Jaume I
  • María Isabel Orts-Cortés Universidad de Alicante
  • Carmen Hernández-Carcereny Hospital Clínic de Barcelona
  • Nuria Seijas-Babot Hospital Clínic de Barcelona
  • Loreto Macia-Soler Universidad de Alicante
Palabras clave: EPOC, educación en salud

Resumen

Según la OMS, el objetivo de la educación terapéutica (ET) es ayudar al paciente a adquirir los recursos necesarios para gestionar óptimamente su vida con una enfermedad crónica. La ET forma parte del tratamiento en la prevención secundaria y terciaria. La última revisión de la Cochrane ha demostrado resultados positivos, sin embargo, la heterogeneidad de las poblaciones, tipo de intervenciones y medidas de resultado hace que sea difícil establecer recomendaciones claras en este ámbito. Así como se desconoce qué instrumentos son los recomendables para evaluar el cumplimiento terapéutico en la EPOC. Por tanto es necesario  realizar de una revisión  con el objetivo de conocer las características de los ensayos clínicos, el perfil del paciente EPOC, los contenidos de la ET y las variables estudiadas en los mismos. Identificándose 22 ensayos clínicos con una alta calidad metodológica, escala Jadad >3 que mostraron que en los ensayos clínicos de programas de ET las variables más estudiadas son la calidad de vida, ingresos hospitalarios y las variables de función pulmonar, donde la ET disminuye los ingresos hospitalarios, favorece la deshabituación tabáquica, mejora los conocimientos de la EPOC cuyas intervenciones son sesiones grupales, con diferentes materiales educativos, existiendo un auge en el número de publicaciones en este ámbito. Existe una gran variedad en los instrumentos de evaluación y heterogeneidad de las intervenciones, para establecer conclusiones.

Biografía del autor/a

Ana Folch, Universitat Jaume I

Profesora Ayudante de la Unidad predepartamental de enfermería desde el año 2013, cuyas lineas de investigación estan vinculadas a las enfermedades crónicas. Actualmente desarrolla y coordina en la ciudad de Castellón, desde el año 2013 hasta la actualidad,  un proyecto multicentrico en el Hospital Universitario General de Castellón, junto con el Hospital Clínic de Barcelona,  sobre la prevención de las exacerbaciones en los pacientes con EPOC,  subvencionado por la Sociedad Científica de Enfermedades Respiratorias (SEPAR).

Además vinculada a las líneas de invesigación de los pacientes crónicos, lleva a cabo investigaciones sobre pacientes oncológicos y paliativos, formada en cuidados oncológicos por la Universidad de Valencia, imparte  docencia de estos en el grado de enfermería de la Universitat Jaume I. Además de estas funciones, actualmente desempeña el cargo de secretaria académica del departamento desde su nombramiento en enero del 2015 hasta la actualidad. 

Citas

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Publicado
28-12-2016
Cómo citar
[1]
Folch, A., Orts-Cortés, M.I., Hernández-Carcereny, C., Seijas-Babot, N. y Macia-Soler, L. 2016. Programas educativos en pacientes con Enfermedad Pulmonar Obstructiva Crónica. Revisión integradora. Enfermería Global. 16, 1 (dic. 2016), 537-573. DOI:https://doi.org/10.6018/eglobal.16.1.249021.
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