Continuities and Discontinuities: Antiziganism in Germany and Italy (1900-1938)


  • Jennifer Illuzzi Providence College
Palabras clave: antiziganism, Germany, Italy, state of exception, history


In both Germany and Italy before WWI, populations labelled as Gypsies found themselves in a “state of exception” which aimed at their elimination from the nation-state by targeting them with policies emanating from the executive. Both states adhered to the liberal idea of equality before the law, but used the flexibility provided by executive authority to pressure Gypsies to leave the state. 

After WWI, both Germany and Italy were forced to retain “Gypsies” inside the state as a result of changing geopolitical circumstances. However, in fascist Italy before WWII, executive authorities continued to operate in a “state of exception” and ceased adhering to the rule of law, interning Gypsies in concentration camps and seeking to eliminate them through forced assimilation. In Weimar Germany, legislative policies sought to eliminate Gypsies through bringing them inside of the law. The contradiction between increasingly racialized notion of Gypsy inassimilability and forced assimilation’s inevitable failures certainly laid the groundwork for extreme measures in both places during WWII.


Los datos de descargas todavía no están disponibles.


ABOUT, I. (2009): "De la libre circulation au contrôle permanent. Les autorités françaises face aux mobilités tsiganes transfrontalières, 1860-1930", Cultures & Conflits , (76), pp. 15–38. doi:10.4000/conflits.17757.

AGAMBEN, G. (2005): State of Exception . Primera edición. Traducción de K. Attell. Chicago, University of Chicago Press.

ARENDT, H. (1973): The Origins of Totalitarianism [Los orígenes del totalitarismo]. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.

CAPOBIANCO, A. (1914): Il problema di una gente vagabonda in lotta con le leggi. Nápoles, Raimondi.

CARTER, N. (2011): "Rethinking the Italian Liberal State", Bulletin of Italian Politics , 3(2), pp. 225–245.

CORBELLETTO, R. (2008): "Rom e sinti perseguitati nell’Italia fascista", L’impegno , XXVII, pp. 76–78.

CREPAS, A. (1938a): "C’era una volta una zingara bionda…", La Stampa, 3 de febrero, p. 2.

CREPAS, A. (1938b): "Fermateli a qualunque costo", La Stampa, 22 de enero, p. 2.

CREPAS, A. (1938c): "Frantumi del fantastic regno senza frontier e senza capitale", La Stampa, 1 de febrero, p. 2.

CREPAS, A. (1938d): "La donna che si chiamava Amore", La Stampa, 27 de enero, p. 2.

DILLMANN, A. (1912): "Denkschrift über die Bekämpfung der Zigeunerplage", Múnich.

FITZPATRICK, M. P. (2013): "A State of Exception? Mass Expulsions and the German Constitutional State, 1871–1914", The Journal of Modern History , 85(4), pp. 772–800. doi:10.1086/672529.

FITZPATRICK, M. P. (2015): Purging the Empire: Mass Expulsions in Germany, 1871-1914 . Oxford, Nueva York, Oxford University Press.

GUERRAZZI, O. (2004): "Il fascismo e gli zingari.", Giornale di storia contemporanea , VII(1), pp. 25–43.

HEHEMANN, R. (1987): Die “Bekämpfung des Zigeunerunwesens” en Wilhelminischen Deutschland und in der Weimarer Republik, 1871 - 1933. Teilw. zugl., Münster/Westf., Univ., Diss., 1986-1987.

HEUSS, H. (2000): "Anti-Gypsyism Research: The Creation of a New Field of Study", en Kenrick, D. (ed.) Scholarship and the Gypsy Struggle : Commitment in Romani Studies: A Collection of Papers and Poems to Celebrate Donald Kenrick’s Seventieth Year. Hertfordshire: Univ of Hertfordshire Press, pp. 52–68.

HIGGS, E. (2004): The Information State in England: The Central Collection of Information on Citizens since 1500. Edición 2003. Basingstoke, Hampshire, Nueva York, N.Y: Palgrave.

HOHMANN, J. S. (1981): Geschichte der Zigeunerverfolgung in Deutschland. Frankfurt/Main, Nueva York, Campus Verlag.

ILLUZZI, J. (2014): Gypsies in Germany and Italy, 1861-1914: Lives Outside the Law. Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire, Nueva York: Palgrave Macmillan.

ILLUZZI, J. (2019): "Stories of a Life Together: Romani groups and the poor in turn of the century Italian archival sources", Ricerca Folklorica , 74.

IRSIGLER, F. (2007): “Faule Verbrecher” - Roma und Sinti in der Weimarer Republik. Zur rassistischen Diskriminierung und ihrer praktischen Umsetzung. Norderstedt: GRIN Verlag.

KALUSZYNSKI, M. (2001): "Republican Identity: Bertillonage as Government Technique", en Caplan, J. y Torpey, J. (eds.) Documenting Individual Identity . Princeton, Princeton University Press, pp. 123–138. La Stampa (1910): "«La colera va decrescendo la intensità»", p. 2.

LEVAKOVICH, G. y AUSENDA, G. (1976): Tzigari: vita di un nomade. Milán.

LUCASSEN, L. (2008): "Between Hobbes and Locke. Gypsies and the limits of the modernization paradigm", Social History , 33(4), pp. 423–441. doi:10.1080/03071020802410411.

LUCHTERHANDT, M. (2000): Der Weg nach Birkenau: Entstehung und Verlauf der nationalsozialstischen Verfolgung derZigeuener . Primera edición. Lübeck: Schmidt-Römhild.

MARUSHIAKOVA, E. y POPOV, V. (2017): "Rethinking Roma Holocaust: Victims or/and Victors", en Buchsbaum, T. M. y Kapralski, S. (eds.) Beyond the Roma Holocaust: From Resistance to Mobilisation. Varsovia, TAiWPN Universitas, pp. 73–93. Link: or_and_Victors (Consultado el 23 de septiembre, 2019).

MAYALL, D. (2003): Gypsy Identities 1500-2000: From Egipcyans and Moonmen to the Ethnic Romany . Taylor & Francis. "Niederschrift über die Besprechung im K.B. Staatsministerium des Innern am 18. und 19. Dezember 1911, betreffend die Bekämpfung der Zigeunerplage" (1911). Munich.

RYDER, A. R. (2019): "A Game of Thrones: Power struggles and contestation in Romani Studies", International Journal of Roma Studies, 1(2), pp. 120–143. doi:10.17583/ijrs.2019.4197.

SCHENK, M. (1994): Rassismus gegen Sinti und Roma: zur Kontinuität d. Zigeunerverfolgung innerhalb d. deutschen Gesellschaft von d. Weimarer Republik bis in d. Gegenwart. Frácfort del Meno [u.a.]: Zugl., Wuppertal, Univ., Diss., 1994 (Studien zur Tsiganologie und Folkloristik, ARRAY(0x558786140c80).

SCHMITT, C. y STRONG, T. B. (2006): Political Theology: Four Chapters on the Concept of Sovereignty. Primera edición. Traducción de G. Schwab. Chicago, University of Chicago Press.

SCOTT, J. C. (2010): The Art of Not Being Governed: An Anarchist History of Upland Southeast Asia . Edición en Yale Agrarian Studies Series, New Haven y Londres, Yale University Press.

SIMONI, A. (2008): "Sicurezza, legalità e lo spettro degli “zingari”", Reset, 107.

SIMONI, A. (2019): Rom, antiziganismo e cultura giuridica. Prospettive di analisi. CISU.

SMITH, H. W. (2008): "When the Sonderweg Debate Left Us", German Studies Review, 31(2), pp. 225–240. Stenographische Berichte zu den Öffentlichen Sitzungen 1925/1926 Nr. 106-129, 116. Sitzung, 12.5.1926 (1926), pp. 450–457. Acceso en: http://geschichte.digitalesammlungen. de/landtag1919/.

SUTRE, A. (2014): "“They give a history of wandering over the world;”. A Romani clan’s transnational movement in the early 20th century" 2/2014, pp. 471-498.", Quaderni Storici , 2, pp. 471–498.

TREVISAN, P. (2009): "Écrire pour qui ?", Etudes Tsiganes , n° 37(1), pp. 90–109.

TREVISAN, P. (2013): "The internment of Italian Sinti in the province of Modena during fascism: From ethnographic to archival research", Romani Studies , 23(2), pp. 139–160. doi:10.3828/rs.2013.8.

TREVISAN, P. (2016): "Le politiche ‹antizingari› del regime fascista nelle province del confine nord-orientale: analisi e prospettive di ricerca", Archivio Trentino, 2, pp. 175–200.

TREVISAN, P. (2017): "“Gypsies” in Fascist Italy: from expelled foreigners to dangerous Italians", Social History , 42(3), pp. 342–364. doi:10.1080/03071022.2017.1327643.

TREVISAN, P. (2019): "The persecution of Rom and Sinti in Fascist Italy", Trauma and Memory , 6(3), pp. 48–55. doi:10.12869/TM2018-3-02.

ZAPPA, P. (1937a): "Il frutto proibito", La Stampa, 4 de mayo, p. 3.

ZAPPA, P. (1937b): "Il richiamo della razza", La Stampa, 9 de mayo, p. 3.

ZAPPA, P. (1937c): "Incontro con la madre della tribù", La Stampa, 16 de abril, p. 3.

ZAPPA, P. (1937d): "L’ideale di ogni zingara dal marito", La Stampa, 8 de abril, p. 3.

ZAPPA, P. (1937e): "Origine degli Zingari", La Stampa, 13 de abril, p. 3.

ZAPPA, P. (1937f): "Ospitalità gitana", La Stampa , 3 de abril.

ZARETSKY, R. y MILJANIC, O. (2010): "France and the Gypsies, Then and Now", The New York Times, 6 de septiembre. Link: (Consultado el 3 de octubre, 2019).


Letter from Avv. Giuseppe Gregoraci to the Interior Minister, Rome, 31 March 1910, Archivio Centrale di Stato Roma (ACdSR) Ministero dell’Interno 12100.14, Polizia Giudiziaria, 1910-1912, busta 309.

Telegram from Ministero dell’Interno to the Prefect of Rome, 27 November 1910, ACdSR Ministero dell’Interno 12100.14, Polizia Giudiziaria, 1910-1912, busta 309.

Direttore Generale di Pubblica Sicurezza to Ministero dell’Interno, Rome, 20 August 1909, ACdSR, Ministero Interno Direzione Generale “Pubblica Sicurezza” Divisione Polizia Giudiziaria: 1910-1912,12100.14, busta 304.

Telegram from Ministero dell’Interno to the Prefetti del Regno, 16 August 1872, Archivio di Stato Torino, Via Piave (AdSTP), Prefettura di Torino Gabinetto: Categoria Massime Affari Vari 1871-1929, 640/1.

Telegram from Interior Minister, General Director of Pubblica Sicurezza, Rome, to the Prefects of the Kingdom, 15 May 1890, ACdSR, Ministero dell’Interno, Polizia Giudiziaria, 1910-1912/12100.14, Busta 304: earlier telegrams attached.

T. Calissano, Circular no 99118 to the Prefects of the Kingdom, 21 August 1910, AdSTP, Prefettura di Torino, Gabinetto, Cat. Massime Affari Vari 1871-1929, Busta 640/1.

L. Luzzatti, Telegram received 26 August 1910 in Torino, AdSTP, Prefettura di Torino, Gabinetto, Cat. Massime Affari Vari 1871-1929, Busta 640/1.

Leonardo, Telegram from Rome, Divisione di PS (n. 12100.14) received 4 October 1910 in Torino, AdSTP, Prefettura di Torino, Gabinetto, Cat. Massime Affari Vari 1871-1929, Busta 640/1.

Leonardo, Telegram from Rome, Divisione di PS (n. 12100.14) received 4 October 1910 in Torino, AdSTP, Prefettura di Torino, Gabinetto, Cat. Massime Affari Vari 1871-1929, Busta 640/1.

Prefect of Udine to the Ministero dell’Interno, Direzione Generale di PS, 24 August 1911, ACdSR Ministero dell’Interno 12100.14, Polizia Giudiziaria, 1910- 1912, busta 306.

Cómo citar
Illuzzi, J. (2020). Continuities and Discontinuities: Antiziganism in Germany and Italy (1900-1938). Sociología Histórica, (10), 51–80.