Factores relacionados con la resiliencia de adolescentes en contextos de vulnerabilidad social: revisión integradora

Palabras clave: Resiliencia Psicológica, Vulnerabilidad Social, Adolescente, Salud del Adolescente, Factores Protectores, Enfermería em Salud Comunitaria

Resumen

Introducción: La resiliencia puede entenderse como un proceso de superación y persistencia contra las fragilidades experimentadas. Los adolescentes en contextos de vulnerabilidad social encuentran obstáculos en el desarrollo de su resiliencia, dificultando la visibilidad de las estrategias de afrontamiento/respuestas a las adversidades de la vida cotidiana.
Objetivo: Analizar la evidencia científica disponible en la literatura sobre los factores relacionados con la resiliencia de adolescentes en contextos de vulnerabilidad social.
Método: Revisión integradora de los artículos publicados en portugués, inglés o español, desde 2014 a 2018, en bibliotecas/bases Medline/Pubmed, Scopus, Web of Science, LILACS, Cochrane, BDENF IBECS, CINAHL y PsycINFO. Se utilizaron los siguientes descriptores “Psychological Resilience”, “Social Vulnerability”, “Adolescent” y “Adolescent Health”, resultando en 17 artículos. La pregunta guía fue: ¿Cuáles son los factores relacionados con la resiliencia de adolescentes en contextos de vulnerabilidad social?
Resultados: Se han formado cinco clases que representan los factores que contribuyen a la resiliencia en adolescentes en situación de vulnerabilidad social, nombradas como: aspiraciones para el futuro, factores de riesgo, barreras institucionales, exposición y apoyo social.
Conclusión: Los factores que fortalecen la resiliencia social son el apoyo prestado por familiares, amigos, profesores, aspectos culturales y religiosos y los factores de riesgo son la violencia, la drogadicción, la falta de seguridad y apoyo institucional precario. El entendimiento de la resiliencia y especificidades que describen las condiciones de salud de los adolescentes en situación de vulnerabilidad social deben ser considerados para reorientar actividades interdisciplinarias e intersectoriales para la promoción de la salud de este grupo poblacional.

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Citas

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Publicado
18-06-2020
Cómo citar
[1]
Sibalde Vanderley, I.C., Sibalde Vanderley, M. de A., da Silva Santana, A.D., Scorsolini-Comin, F., Brandão Neto, W. y Meirelles Monteiro, E.M.L. 2020. Factores relacionados con la resiliencia de adolescentes en contextos de vulnerabilidad social: revisión integradora . Enfermería Global. 19, 3 (jun. 2020), 582-625. DOI:https://doi.org/10.6018/eglobal.411311.
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