Intervenciones para disminuir el consumo de alcohol en adolescentes: una revisión sistemática

  • Eva Kerena Hernández Martínez Universidad de Guanajuato; México
  • Ma. Gloria Calixto Olalde Universidad de Guanajuto
  • Alicia Álvarez Aguirre Universidad de Guanajuto
Palabras clave: adolescentes, intervención, consumo de alcohol

Resumen

Objetivo: Sintetizar y valorar la evidencia científica disponible durante el período 2006-2016 respecto a las intervenciones que se han realizado para disminuir el consumo de alcohol en adolescentes.  
Materiales y métodos: Se realizó búsqueda en EBSCO, PubMed, Science Direct, Scielo Redalyc y Google académico, delimitada a diez años, se incluyeron 61 artículos que cumplieron con los criterios de inclusión. Se utilizaron descriptores DeCS y mesh, a partir del uso de palabras claves para la búsqueda de los estudios en español e inglés y los operadores boléanos AND y OR.
Resultados: El nivel de evidencia encontrado fue 2 (3%), 3 (3%), 4 (34.4%) y 5 (55.7%). El 8.1% de los ECA se apegaron al CONSORT, 60.6% de las intervenciones estuvieron dirigidas solo a adolescentes, el escenario de aplicación fue la escuela en un 59%, mientras que 34.4% recibió la intervención mediante elementos multimedia y/o internet, al 74.1% se le dio conocimientos generales acerca del consumo de alcohol, 18% mencionó haber realizado la intervención entre 2 y 20 sesiones, 31% dio seguimiento entre 1 y 8 meses después de entregar el tratamiento; 16.3% dio refuerzos y el 95% de los estudios arrojaron disminuir con sus intervenciones el consumo de alcohol en los adolescentes.
Conclusiones: Las intervenciones en adolescentes respecto al consumo de alcohol son complejas, por la etapa en la que se encuentra el sujeto de estudio. Analizar el panorama general de las intervenciones a través del tiempo permite evidenciar la evolución del abordaje a este fenómeno de interés para la ciencia.

Biografía del autor

Eva Kerena Hernández Martínez, Universidad de Guanajuato; México
  1. Estudiante de doctorado en ciencias de enfermería de la Universidad de Guanajuato. División de ciencias de la salud e ingenierías. Campus Celaya-Salvatierra. (Celaya, Guanajuanto; México)
Ma. Gloria Calixto Olalde, Universidad de Guanajuto
Doctora en ciencias de enfermería. Profesor de tiempo completo del departamento de enfermería clínica de la división de ciencias de la salud e ingenierías del Campus Celaya-Salvatierra de la Universidad de Guanajuato.
Alicia Álvarez Aguirre, Universidad de Guanajuto
Doctora en ciencias de enfermería. Profesor de tiempo completo del departamento de enfermería clínica de la división de ciencias de la salud e ingenierías del Campus Celaya-Salvatierra de la Universidad de Guanajuato.

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Publicado
30-12-2017
Cómo citar
1.
Hernández Martínez E, Calixto Olalde M, Álvarez Aguirre A. Intervenciones para disminuir el consumo de alcohol en adolescentes: una revisión sistemática. eglobal [Internet]. 30dic.2017 [citado 16oct.2018];17(1):529-4. Available from: http://revistas.um.es/eglobal/article/view/284891
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